How Can A Modern Commercial Airliner Simply Disappear?

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Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

everyone is left hanging as to the fate which Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 suffered, and the agony might have to be prolonged as the search is expected to last up to 12 months, with a price tag of more or less $60 million.

Last June, Australian officials released a report stating that passengers and crew of MH370 most likely died from suffocation and crashed into the ocean while on autopilot.

In this progressive environment where we can track the location of our loved ones on our cell phones at any given moment, it is no wonder that the disappearance of a jetliner – 65 meters long, weighing half a million pounds – has left the world stunned.

March 8, 2014 the day Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 disappeared:

Malaysia fltWith each press conference, we sympathize with the families of the missing passengers and hope for a storybook ending to this saga. The stream of conflicting reports raised our hopes and then shatter them, turning this ordeal into an emotional roller coaster.

But one must ask – is it really impossible for an airliner to disappear? Is it really such a mystery?

What do we know?

Let us look at the facts so far. MH370, a 12-year-old Boeing 777-200 ER departed from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and was bound for Beijing, China. At the controls were Captain Zaharie Ahmad Shah, a veteran commander with over three decades at Malaysian Airlines and over 18,000 flying hours and First Officer Fariq Abdul Hamid, a relative novice who had just started flying the 777 but had the required experience for this position.

Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Captain Zaharie & Co-Pilot Fariq Hamid at Kuala Lumpur Airport

The flight departed from the Kuala Lumpur International Airport – one of the busiest airports in the region – and climbed as per routine to its cruising altitude of 35,000 feet during which regular communication with Malaysian air traffic control ensued. However, approaching the airspace border between Malaysia and Vietnam, the aircraft failed to contact the Vietnamese air traffic control and disappeared off the radar scope.

The sudden absence of radar contact and all forms of communication indicated that some sort of catastrophic failure or explosion was the cause of the disappearance and based on this assumption a search for the missing aircraft began the following morning in the relatively shallow waters of the Gulf of Thailand. News of the aircraft being involved in an earlier ground collision which had resulted in a damaged wing came to light, enforcing the view that the aircraft had disintegrated in flight, bringing to mind the Air France 447 flight that crashed in the Atlantic Ocean just four years ago.

As the days passed, the seemingly desperate search revealed nothing new about the aircraft while new information kept on coming to light. Rumors that MH370 may have turned around and flown for several hours after it disappeared from radar contact grew rampant until finally on the seventh day, the Malaysian prime minister confirmed that the aircraft had been tracked by primary air force radar and ACARS data and had changed course to fly westwards back across the Malay-Thai border. He went on to say that it was last tracked leaving Malaysian airspace in a north-westerly direction over the Andaman Sea and was headed towards the Arabian Sea when radar contact was lost.

Can an airliner simply disappear? 

In order to understand how an aircraft can vanish, let’s look at how aircrafts are tracked and what transpired as MH370 ‘disappeared’. All airliners are monitored by air traffic control using secondary radar which is fundamentally different to the primary radar usually deployed by a country’s Air Force or Air Defense. Primary radar scans for any and all objects in the air and is usually used as the first line of defense to identify unexpected aircraft. We usually see this in the movies as a blip on a radar screen.

1MH370Secondary radar transmits a signal that queries a transponder on the aircraft which responds with basic flight information such as flight number, speed and altitude that is displayed on the air traffic controller’s screen. With the transponder switched off, the secondary radar can no longer see the aircraft and it practically disappears off the screen.

Yes, it really is that simple.

However, primary radar can and did track an object. But without the means to identify whether this was MH370 or another unidentified aircraft, there was no confirmation. Each country monitors its own airspace which extends out over the waters off its coast. Over large expanses of water, there is no radar and aircraft’s are not monitored when they leave the airspace of one country and begin transoceanic flight, until they re-enter the airspace of another country near its coastline.

So, say a flight from London to New York is monitored on radar until it leaves the airspace of the United Kingdom and enters international oceanic airspace over the Atlantic. Pilots still pass routine position reports and estimates for further positions to controllers over the radio but the aircraft is not actually monitored on a radar scope until it nears the North American coast.

Airliners are also equipped with ACARS which is essentially a unit that transmits and receives data using radio or satellite communication. This data can be sent out automatically by the aircraft’s computers in the form of routine performance reports or as maintenance alerts for possible requirements after landing. It can also be used by the pilots to request operational or company information such as weather reports or flight plan updates. Lastly, there is also a satellite communication system that can be used to place phone calls via satellite for areas of poor or no radio communication or in case long-range communication is required.

As the primary radar and ACARS data was analysed and by overlaying this data with the last identified course and position of MH370, it became obvious that MH370 was indeed the same contact seen on the primary radar flying westbound over preconceived aeronautical way-points that would be used on a regular westerly route.

The authorities knew of this at least a day before it was announced to the world as the search area was shifted to the west coast of Malaysia a day before this information was released to the media.

As far as the question of whether or not an airliner can simply vanish without a trace, the answer is yes and no. While a switched off transponder prevents confirmation of the aircraft’s identity via secondary radar, the aircraft is still very much in the air physically and can still be tracked by the primary radar.

Technical glitch or human intervention?

As pilot, Aroosh Naqvi, reports, “let me assure you that such a drastic and specific change in flight path combined with altitude changes and lack of transponder and radio contact, could not be carried out without human intervention. As advanced as the 777 may be, it still requires extensive training to operate, leaving little doubt that the intervention was made by persons trained in the operation of the aircraft either deliberately or under duress.”

In a nutshell, there is little doubt of foul play.

Perhaps, the illusion of a ‘disappeared’ aircraft was maintained to deflect attention whilst the aircraft continued on to an unknown destination. As the aircraft left Malaysian airspace, it entered the Arabian Sea – an area with no primary radar – and could no longer be tracked. At this point, the aircraft would still have four to five hours of fuel remaining which would give it a range of over 2,500 miles.

From here onwards, the only information the aircraft continued to transmit was ACARS data containing minimal position information, based on which two vague routes which happen to be in completely opposing directions, have been established as the possible route of flight and a so called ‘search area.’ However, realistically speaking, such a large area is practically unsearchable and most of the inquiry about the flight will now focus primarily on the crew and passengers.

The pilots: masterminds or acting under duress?

The question remains as to whether the captain and first officer of MH370 acted on their own accord or under pressure. Going to such lengths to make the aircraft disappear off radar, and yet, fail to mask ACARS transmissions is an error that a skilled pilot is unlikely to make.

Map_of_search_for_MH370

However, ACARS transmissions may be easily overlooked by someone with less insight into the aircraft systems, under whose orders the crew might have been acting. Turning off the ACARS system is not as simple as the one switch that turns the transponder on and off. ACARS is a system buried within the aircraft’s computer architecture and is usually operated automatically. It can only be shut off by removing power to the entire system by pulling circuit breakers – otherwise, obviously not used inflight.

Although I have my own speculate, one needs to bear in mind the accuracy and timing with which the aircraft was made to disappear from radar. This indicates an elaborate plot to draw the world’s attention to a false search area under the premise of a crash whilst the aircraft itself traveled in the opposite direction and possibly onto a particular destination.

There are several possible outcomes to the question where it might have gone. Firstly, it could have crashed somewhere en-route. And second, although a rather farfetched scenario (but one that is becoming more realistic) is that, the elaborate deviation of flight path culminated in a final destination. And this brings us to a more difficult question – is it possible to covertly land a large aircraft and if so, where?

MH370 Held in Diego Garcia? Conspiracy Theory and GPS:

Diego GarciaAlong both the possible scenarios flight routes, there are vast expanses of ocean and countless territories which, like the Malaysians, may not be able to identify or intercept a lone aircraft. Furthermore, with the right kind of resources and planning, it is possible to land such an aircraft in a remote airfield, hundreds of which exist in the region.

However, the main question that arises is to what end? A hijacking or terrorist plot would not require such elaborate and painstaking efforts to dupe the authorities and a ‘disappeared’ aircraft would not help in releasing their demands. It would be simpler and more effective to hijack the aircraft with full media coverage. However, we must recall that pre 9/11, such a horrific event was unimaginable to most, not to mention that the required preventive security measures were not even enforced.

Another timely possibility:

Further evidence emerges that reinforces the once-crazy notion, and some proportion of the doubters come around. Then even more implausible information turns up, and it’s off the to the fringes again. Some speculate the plane is most likely in western China or an adjacent Turkic area, stands out for having received an extra measure of skepticism.

March 7, 2014: Navy deploys its first directed energy weapon to the fleet; Laser Weapon System

The profile of available evidence as to how Fight 370 was downed could fit the targeting profile of the LaWS directed energy weapons system.

After successful testing last year, the Navy deployed its first directed energy weapon to the fleet. The afloat forward staging base ship USS Ponce is equipped with the Navy’s Laser Weapon System (LaWS).

LaWS is a system based on a design developed by the Navy Research Lab and engineers at the Naval Sea Systems Command and Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren. Its purpose is not to vaporize enemy ships but to provide a low-cost way for the Navy to defend against drones, small boats, light aircraft, and missiles at ranges of about a mile.

 While the Navy will still depend on missiles and guns to defend against bigger targets, the LaWS system is designed to cost about a dollar a shot without the fuss and muss of the depleted uranium bullets spewed by the Navy’s Phalanx Close-in weapon system (CIWS). It can be used for a “hard” kill on smaller targets (directing enough energy at the target to set it on fire or explode fuel aboard it) or for a “soft” kill by blinding a drone or missile’s imaging sensors.

In a test last May, an initial prototype of the system used the CIWS’ radar system to target, blind, and then destroy a drone in flight from the deck of a ship.

Phalanx “The effects are scalable,” Navy Captain Mike Ziv, the Naval Sea Systems Command’s program manager for directed energy and electric weapons, told the Department of Defense’s Armed With Science. “In some cases [the effects are] reversible, and in some cases it can be used for destruction.”

 

US to Deploy Stealth Destroyers in Pacific by 2014

Zumwalt-class destroyersThere’s also the new Zumwalt-class destroyers that are being built by the Navy to have more than sufficient electrical generation capacity to power much larger directed energy weapons than the LaWS.

“With its stealth, incredibly capable sonar system, strike capability and lower manning requirements, this is our future,” said Admiral Jonathan Greenert, chief of naval operations.

The ship’s capabilities on the high seas combined with maneuverability close to shore makes it ideally suited for the many islands and straits of the western Pacific in light of Washington’s new Asia-centric military focus.

The Zumwalt-class destroyers are equipped with “exotic weapons” like the free-electron laser which can zap missiles out of the sky with 1 megawatt beams that deploy a broad spectrum of wavelengths. While some have doubted the so-called super-laser, last year Dinh Nguyen, its Vietnamese American lead researcher, announced a “major breakthrough in bringing up the laser’s power level.”

Electromagnetic RailgunThe stealth destroyers are also equipped with Electromagnetic Railgun capable of rapidly firing barrages of long-range high-speed projectiles with unerring accuracy.

These and other more conventional weapons will give it the capability to be a multi-role destroyer for surface warfare, anti-aircraft (anti-aircraft guns are weapons designed to attack aircraft) and naval fire support. Strategists see it as the answer to the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy’s strategy of denying access to the waters around China.

The US Navy plans to deploy a fleet of smaller Littoral combat ship to the western Pacific to counter the challenge from a “rapidly-growing and increasingly aggressive Chinese navy.”

In other words, capable of “disappearing” a plane?

The profile of available evidence as to how Fight 370 was downed fits the targeting profile of the LaWS directed energy weapons system.

The questions that remain…

I would like to put forward several questions that nobody seems to be asking. The fact that a large aircraft could fly for over an hour directly across the Malaysian peninsula, eerily close to the Malay-Thai border under observation of Malaysia Air Force radar, without being intercepted by the Malaysian Defense Forces,  is simply shocking. Even more surprising is the fact that it took three days before anyone was able to verify that there was indeed an aircraft crossing Malaysia at the exact same time that a scheduled flight disappeared. The initial 24-48 hours would have been crucial in locating the aircraft.

Unfortunately, the investigation will now shift to the passengers and crew and their already shattered homes shall be picked apart to no end. The media will tout each opportunity to defame them and twist the facts to keep the world’s attention focused on the TV screens.

Although “accidents” will continue to occur, it is the mysterious ones that capture our imagination and this may just be another mystery that remains unanswered for a very long time.

 

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Related:

Other mysterious disappearances and names like Amelia Earhart and the Bermuda Triangle haunt us to date, such stories have become exceedingly rare.

If the ever-growing mystery of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 has you wondering how a plane can simply disappear into thin air, consider this: Data from the Aviation Safety Network shows that more than 80 aircraft (capable of carrying more than 14 passengers) have been declared “missing” since 1948. Here are some of those mysteries:

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Related?

5 hours ago – July 28, 2014

Stealth destroyers, littoral combat ships headed to Pacific…..

 

 

Resources:

Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 update: 4 months after

Aroosh Naqvi

A pilot’s perspective on the disappearance of MH370

Why I Think It’s Very Possible That the Missing Airliner Is in

carrier-based drones

Pilot Says At-Home Flight Simulator Not Unusual – ABC New

NEWSLAWSNaval Sea Systems Command – U.S. Navy

Lasers, Rail Guns and the Future of the U.S. Navy | Armed

US-Laser-Weapon-Test on March 8, 2014 at Diego Garcia, the day Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 disappeared

How Can A Modern Commercial Airliner Simply

Beyond Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370: 6 Other Planes

Israel Caught Housing ‘Identical Twin of Flight 370′ In Tel

 

Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)

DILAS: The diode laser company

(United States); Heiko Kissel, Jens Biesenbach, DILAS Diodenlaser GmbH (Germany)

Published in Proceedings Volume 8733: Laser Technology for Defense and Security IX
June 2013

 

 

Religion and Science: Irreconcilable?

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Einstein1b‘Does there truly exist an insuperable contradiction between religion and science? Can religion be superseded by science? The answers to these questions have, for centuries, given rise to considerable dispute and, indeed, bitter fighting. Yet, in my own mind there can be no doubt that in both cases a dispassionate consideration can only lead to a negative answer. What complicates the solution, however, is the fact that while most people readily agree on what is meant by science, they are likely to differ on the meaning of religion.’ – Einstein

Science, in the immediate, produces knowledge and, indirectly, means of action. It leads to methodical action if definite goals are set up in advance. For the function of setting up goals and passing statements of value transcends its domain. While it is true that science, to the extent of its grasp of causative connections, may reach important conclusions as to the compatibility and incompatibility of goals and evaluations, the independent and fundamental definitions regarding goals and values remain beyond science’s reach.

folly of faithAs regards religion, on the other hand, one is generally agreed that it deals with goals and evaluations and, in general, with the emotional foundation of human thinking and acting, as far as these are not predetermined by the in alterable hereditary disposition of the human species. Religion is concerned with man’s attitude toward nature at large, with the establishing of ideals for the individual and communal life, and with mutual human relationship. These ideals religion attempts to attain by exerting an educational influence on tradition and through the development and promulgation of certain easily accessible thoughts and narratives (epics and myths) which are apt to influence evaluation and action along the lines of the accepted ideals.

It is this mythical, or rather this symbolic, content of the religious traditions which is likely to come into conflict with science. This occurs whenever this religious stock of ideas contains dogmatically fixed statements on subjects which belong in the domain of science.

creatures“If a man sings of God and hears of Him, And lets love of God sprout within him, All his sorrows shall vanish, And in his mind, God will bestow abiding peace.” –Sikhism

“A Muslim is one who surrenders to the will of Allah and is an establisher of peace (while Islam means establishment of peace, Muslim means one who establishes peace through his actions and conduct).”–Islam

“The Lord lives in the heart of every creature. He turns them round and round upon the wheel of Maya. Take refuge utterly in Him. By his grace you will find supreme peace, and the state which is beyond all change.” –Hinduism

“The whole of the Torah is for the purpose of promoting peace.” –Judaism

“All things exist for world peace.” –Perfect Liberty Kyodan

“Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called sons of God.” –Christianity

 “Peace … comes within the souls of men when they realize their relationship, their openness, with the universe and all its powers and when they realize that at the center of the universe dwells Wakan-Tanka, and that this center is really everywhere, it is within each of us.”–From The Sacred Pipe, by Black Elk, Lakota Sioux Medicine Man.

 

 

Resources:

Religion and Science

Socialphy – Collective Intelligence

Socialphy

Ideas And Opinions: Albert Einstein: 9780517884409

Our Shared Existence, and Life’s

Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire

Physics and Theology

Einstein on Kindness

Spirituality, Religion, Culture, and Peace

FEMA’s Top Secret Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center

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mount-weather-aerialThe Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center is a civilian command facility in the U.S. state of Virginia, used as the center of operations for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Also known as the High Point Special Facility (HPSF), its preferred designation since 1991.

The facility is a major relocation site for the highest level of civilian and military officials in case of national disaster, playing a major role in U.S. continuity of government (per the Continuity of Operations Plan).

Mount Weather is the location of a control station for the FEMA National Radio System (FNARS), a high frequency radio system connecting most federal public safety agencies and U.S. military with most of the states. FNARS allows the president to access the Emergency Alert System.

FEMA National Radio SystemThe site was brought into the public eye by The Washington Post, when the government facility was mentioned while reporting on the December 1, 1974, crash into Mount Weather of TWA Flight 514, a Boeing 727 jetliner.

Location

Located in the Blue Ridge Mountains, access to the operations center is available via Virginia State Route 601 (also called Blueridge Mountain Road) in Bluemont, Virginia. The facility is located near Berryville, 48 miles from Washington, D.C.

The site was originally opened as a weather station in the late 1800s.  It was used as a Civilian Public Service facility (Camp # 114) during World War II. At that time there were just two permanent buildings on the site: the administration/dormitory building, and the laboratory. Those buildings still stand, supplemented by many more modern buildings.

Xfiles-Weather copy_thumb[1]The underground facility within Mount Weather, designated “Area B”, was completed in 1959. FEMA established training facilities on the mountain’s surface (“Area A”) in 1979.

The above-ground portion of the FEMA complex (Area A) is at least 434 acres. This measurement includes a training area of unspecified size.  Area B, the underground component, contains 600,000 square feet (56,000 m2).

Evacuations

According to a letter to the editor of The Washington Post, after the September 11 attacks, most of the congressional leadership was evacuated to Mount Weather by helicopter.

Between 1979 and 1981, the National Gallery of Art developed a program to transport valuable paintings in its collection to Mount Weather via helicopter. The success of the relocation would depend upon how far in advance warning of an attack was received.

Because many of its activities are deemed to be Top Secret, not much is known about the day-to-day working at Mt. Weather, and even less is known about the plans that would unfold in case of a dire emergency.

Mt weatherThat is why a recent presolicitation notice issued by FEMA on July 8 of last year sheds a bit of welcome light on one aspect of the emergency operations center’s day-to-day functioning. FEMA’s notice indicates that it is planning to issue a contract to a company that can provide a variety of medical services at Mt. Weather – in both normal times and “during emergencies where immediate transfer of patients is inhibited, medical staff and patients may be required to stay on-site.”

The notice explains that Mt. Weather is open 24 hours a day, every day, throughout the year. “Activities on-site include facility operations, data centers, communication hubs, and classified programs,” FEMA noted. “Operations are designed to continue without significant support from external entities.”

The presolicitation document points out that there are typically about 1,400 full-time personnel on site who might require medical attention. “However, the on-site population can expand significantly at times.” FEMA and Mt. Weather do not make it a habit to discuss various scenarios that might unfold in case of a major disaster or emergency.

Much of the work at Mt. Weather is conducted in secret. “A Top Secret security facility clearance is required of the contractor and any subcontractors, and individual Top Secret clearances are required for all staff, both permanent and backup,” insists FEMA. A part of the medical work that would be performed under this contract would take place in a classified area that that requires a Top Secret security clearance to access.

bioterrorMedical Services Support at the Mt. Weather Emergency Operations Center

Solicitation Number:HSFE50-13-R-0026Agency: Department of Homeland Security
Office: Federal Emergency Management Agency

Contract Award Dollar Amount:
Not To Exceed $3,936,846.28

See also

ANZA Seismic Network

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anza_proposal_1redThe ANZA Seismic Network utilizes state-of-the-art broadband sensors and 24-bit dataloggers combined with real-time telemetry to monitor local and regional seismicity in southernmost California. The goal of this project is to provide on-scale digital recording of high-resolution three component seismic data for all earthquakes, provide real-time data to other regional networks and the USNSN, and provide near real-time information to the greater San Diego community. This proposal requests funds to support the continued operations of the ANZA network.

The ANZA network has been a leader in developing techniques for real-time data delivery over the Internet. To effect rapid data transfer to TriNet routinely transfer all the ANZA data within ten seconds of real-time. In this way, the broadband data is seamlessly integrated in the Caltech/USGS real-time data processing system. The ANZA network exports data in real-time to the IRIS: Data Management Center where it is automatically archived and is immediately available to the seismological community. Real-time data exchanges between UCSD – UC Berkeley and UCSD – University of Nevada-Reno have been operational since late 1998.

The ANZA network enhances the broadband coverage provided by the TriNet in southernmost California. ANZA stations are designed to operate in remote areas without any supporting infrastructure such as AC power, telephone or computer communications. Each station can operate using solar power and all communications between stations and the IGPP are dedicated spread spectrum radio links. The current configuration of the ANZA network will allow for on-scale recording of local events with magnitudes less than M ~ 5. At present, over 32,000 events have been recorded during the 18 years of continuous operation. The median station data return rate is 99.22%.

camp stevensTo provide better coverage in the metropolitan San Diego area, they operate a station on Mt. Soledad in La Jolla. This station provides extended broadband coverage to San Diego county and the offshore region complementing the nearest TriNet stations at Barrett Junction (BAR), Julian Camp Stevens (JCS), and Mt. Palomar (PLM), all located in rural San Diego county. In the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Project – Broadband Seismic, a set of Borehole Accelerometer have been installed next to the Thornton Hospital on the UCSD campus. The Thornton station provides the only real-time strong motion data from urban or suburban San Diego.

Borehole AccelerometerIn keeping with the spirit of cooperation which has characterized seismological research at Anza, and consistent with the scientific motivations of the ANZA network since its establishment, we will coordinate our research and operations effort with the work conducted by TriNet and with SCEC. We will continue to provide real-time data to the regional networks: TriNet, the University of Nevada-Reno, UC Berkeley, CICESE; to the USNSN, IRIS DMC; and to any other end user who requests data.

In 2001-2004 we propose to continuously operate the following field configuration:

  1. Fourteen 3-component broadband stations. All stations using Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers. 24-bit A/D resolution on all broadband channels.
  2. Borehole strong motion array at Thornton Hospital in San Diego.

In addition, we plan to accomplish the following data processing goals:

  1. Continue to keep a complete and concurrent archive of the ANZA waveform data at the IRIS DMC in real-time.
  2. Determine routine locations and source parameters for all events.
  3. Maintain updated maps/web sites showing local seismicity based on our real-time catalogs.

Significance of Project

Introduction

The ANZA Seismic Network utilizes state-of-the-art broadband sensors and 24-bit dataloggers combined with real-time telemetry to monitor local and regional seismicity in southernmost California (Figure 1). The goal of this project is to provide on-scale digital recording of high-resolution three component seismic data for all earthquakes, provide real-time data to other regional networks and the USNSN, and provide near real-time information to the greater San Diego community. This proposal requests funds to support the continued operations of the ANZA network.

Figure 1. The ANZA seismic network. Current ANZA stations are designated by yellow triangles. The thick blue line shows the microwave telemetry path between Toro Peak and Mt. Soledad near IGPP in La Jolla. Broadband TriNet stations are marked by white squares. Seismicity is marked by red dots. The Interstate highways are marked in black and dashed red lines are faults of interest.

The ANZA network has been a leader in developing techniques for real-time data delivery over the Internet. Through the joint efforts of the personnel at the USGS in Pasadena and Caltech, we developed a system in 1995 which sent phase picks and event waveforms to the Southern California Seismic Networ (SCSN). After testing and evaluating this procedure, we determined that although it worked well, the optimal solution would be to have a direct data feed without the delays caused by intermediate processing steps. By the end of 1996, we had implemented the Object Ring Buffer (ORB) real-time software developed by the University of Colorado supported by funding from IRIS. To effect rapid data transfer to the SCSN, and to its successor TriNet, we installed an ORB server on a computer at Caltech, wrote a software module to interface with the TriNet system, and use this mechanism to routinely transfer all the ANZA data within ten seconds of real-time. In this way, the broadband data is seamlessly integrated in the Caltech/USGS real-time data processing system. Initial procedures for the ANZA network to access TriNet real-time data are now being jointly developed. Real-time data exchanges between UCSD – UC Berkeley and UCSD – University of Nevada-Reno have been operational since late 1998. Mechanisms are in place for the USNSN to access ANZA network real-time data using their Virtual DataLogger (VDL) software.

The ANZA network enhances the broadband coverage provided by the TriNet in southernmost California. ANZA stations are designed to operate in remote areas without any supporting infrastructure such as AC power, telephone or computer communications. Each station can operate using solar power and all communications between stations and the IGPP are dedicated spread spectrum radio links. Two ANZA stations (BZN and WMC) have developed significant cultural noise over the past several years. Following discussions with Dr. Egill Hauksson from the TriNet, we have decided to redeploy these stations towards the south and east of the existing ANZA stations, in the Borrego Valley at the former SCSN single component analog sites, COY and BRG. Final permission for upgrading these stations was received from the Anza-Borrego State Park in May, 2000.

The ANZA network is centered around the Anza segment of the San Jacinto fault zone (Figure 2) which has a maximum expected characteristic earthquake magnitude of 7.5 (Working Group, 1995). This segment of the San Jacinto fault zone is one of the greatest seismic hazards to San Diego county. There is a high level of microseismicity (Ml < 4.5) in the Anza region. It is also located in a region where there is a large number of significant events. The 1986 North Palm Springs (Mw = 6.2), 1987 Superstition Hills (Mw = 6.5), 1987 Elmore Ranch (Mw = 5.9), 1992 Joshua Tree (Mw = 6.1), 1992 Landers (Mw = 7.3), 1992 Big Bear (Mw = 6.2), 1999 Hector Mine (Mw = 7.1) have all occurred within 100 km of the center of the ANZA network since it was installed in 1982. In addition, the Southern California batholith is widely exposed on both sides of the San Jacinto fault near Anza and provides for exceptionally low-loss and homogeneous transmission paths, and consequently high accuracy in determining locations and source parameters (Scott, 1992).

Figure 2. Major earthquakes in historical times in the southern California region. Surface ruptures are defined by the dark gray lines and epicenters are designated by circles scaled by magnitude. The ANZA network is centered on the middle part of the San Jacinto fault zone.

On 1 October 1982, the ANZA network became operational when eight of the ten stations began delivering data in real-time to IGPP/UCSD. In December 1989, the data logging system was upgraded with new equipment which enhanced the capabilities of the network. The improvements include remote control of gain and calibration circuits at each station as well as synchronous sampling of all stations in the network. The network implemented 24-bit A/D converters in 1993 and multiple sample rates in 1994. In December 1999, all radio telemetry links were upgraded to use either the 900 Mhz or the 2.4 Ghz spread spectrum bands. The current configuration of the ANZA network will allow for on-scale recording of local events with magnitudes less than M ~ 5. At present, over 32,000 events have been recorded during the 18 years of continuous operation.

To provide better coverage in the metropolitan San Diego area, we operate a station on Mt. Soledad in La Jolla (Figure 1). This station provides extended broadband coverage to San Diego county and the offshore region complementing the nearest TriNet stations at Barrett Junction (BAR), Julian Camp Stevens (JCS), Mt. Palomar (PLM), all located in rural San Diego county. In the University of California Cooperative Laboratory/Campus (uc/clc campus earthquake program, a set of borehole accelerometers have been installed next to the Thornton Hospital on the UCSD campus. The Thornton station provides the only real-time strong motion data from urban or suburban San Diego. The data from these strong motion sensors are included into the ANZA real-time processing system and transmitted to TriNet in real-time. Borehole accelerometers have also been installed at UC Santa Barbara and UC Riverside as part of the UC CLC project which telemeter real-time data to the ANZA network through the Internet. In addition, two new stations will be provided from internal institutional funds over the next two years.

However, even with these additional stations, San Diego will still be severely underserved. In terms of population, San Diego County is the fourth largest county in the entire U.S. San Diego County is growing rapidly, with a current population of 3 million people (Appendix A). The City of San Diego is the sixth largest city in the U.S. The gross regional product for San Diego County for 1999 was 92 billion dollars. Continued funding of the ANZA network will enable us to provide near real-time information on seismic activity to the San Diego community. In addition, UCSD is ideally situated to serve as a backup real-time processing center to assist TriNet in emergency situations.

Network Instrumentati

Broadband Stations

The current ANZA digital telemetry system (Figures 1 and 3) is designed to accommodate up to 32 three-component, remote, digital seismic stations with sampling rates of 100, 40, and 1 samples per second per component. At present, the data from thirteen stations are transmitted via 900 Mhz spread spectrum digital radio link to a relay station on the 2655-m summit of Toro Peak. A fourteenth station (TRO) is located on the summit of Toro and is connected to the system by wireline telemetry. The stations YAQ, MONP, and SMTC, provided by internal IGPP funding, were added to the ANZA network in 1997. On Toro Peak, data are recorded on a Sun computer which sends data over a 2.4 Ghz wireless bridge to Mt. Soledad in La Jolla and thence to IGPP at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. All components of the system have a battery backup power system or an uninteruptible power supply to minimize the possibility of losing data.

Figure 3. Data flow through the ANZA network. Data packets are sent from the stations to Toro Peak via spread spectrum radios. From Toro Peak the packets are retransmitted to Mt. Soledad and on to IGPP using a wireless bridge. At IGPP the data packets are both processed locally in real-time and sent over the Internet to Caltech, UNR, UCB, IRIS DMC, CICESE, and PEPP. Data are stored locally and at the IRIS DMC.

At each remote station there is a Streckeisen STS-2 seismometer, digitized by a Reftek 72A-08 datalogger. The firmware and telemetry systems were upgraded in December, 1999. These upgrades were designed and field tested by IGPP as part of the IRIS PASSCAL broadband array during deployments in northwest Colorado (1997-8), South Africa (1998-1999), southern California (1999) and Montana (1999-present).

The terminus for the spread spectrum portion of the telemetry is on Toro Peak (Figure 3). A wireline telemetry data stream from a local seismic station (TRO) is received along with the spread spectrum radio signals from the remote stations. The network time is provided by a single GPS synchronized clock located on Toro Peak. The time data is broadcast to all the remote stations on a spread spectrum radio link using a synchronous timing feature in the Freewave radios. Each of the one-second data buffers for each station-channel is received by an IGPP Data Concentrator which sends data packets to a local Sun computer. The Sun forwards data over a wireless bridge link to IGPP using a standard IP protocols, and also provides several weeks of local backup data storage. The microwave data link utilizes Glenayre equipment operating in the 2.4 GHz spread spectrum band. A 1-watt transmitter at Toro Peak, feeding a 2.7-m dish antenna, provides a 34 dB signal-to-noise ratio over the 112 km path to Mt. Soledad in La Jolla where an identical antenna receives the signal. The link from Mt. Soledad to IGPP, 3.2 km away, uses a 0.1 watt transmitter and a pair of 0.7-m dish antennae. The current maximum bit rate for the microwave system is 512 Kbps. As a result of this upgrade, the data return rates have been spectacular. Since the beginning of 2000, the median data return rate for ANZA network stations is 99.22%, and only one station has less than 98.66% data return!

Strong Motion Stations

As part of the UC-CLC project, borehole and surface strong motion accelerometers were installed to characterize site effects on the UC San Diego, UC Riverside, and UC Santa Barbara campuses. Data from these stations are telemetered in real-time over the Internet to the ANZA network operations center where they are included into the automatic location routines, processed, and archived. The ANZA system is designed to accept future real-time strong motion stations located in the San Diego area, if funds for new stations become available.

Real-Time Processing and Data Distribution

At IGPP, data are received by a SUN workstation (Figure 3) operating the Antelope real-time processing system developed by Boulder Real Time Technologies, Inc. (http://www.brtt.com). The Antelope system is a complete real-time system which includes estimating P and S wave arrival times, event detection in multiple frequency bands, event triggers, location and magnitude estimation, data distribution, and data archiving. The existing Antelope system can provide a ring buffer capacity of 48 hours of data for the 17 station network. In addition, a complete disk resident waveform database is kept online containing the most recent 40 days of data. The Antelope Real-Time system performed extremely well during the very active Hector Mine aftershock sequence starting in October, 1999. Two analyst reviewing data, working eight hours per day, were able to process 2603 events in 22 days, completely eliminating the backlog of events.

During the last three years, improvements to hardware and software have led to a more reliable and a higher resolution system. In the first15 years of operation (1982-July 1997) the ANZA catalog contained 15,000 events. Since July 1997, the catalog has increased by 17,000 events!

Real-Time Waveform Data Delivery to TriNet

Using the Antelope system, all waveform data are delivered via the Internet to the TriNet data center (Figures 3 and 4) where the ANZA data are included in the TriNet real-time event association, location, and magnitude estimation processing. ANZA waveform data are received at Caltech by the TriNet system within 5 to 10 seconds of real time. The TriNet catalog, which includes the ANZA network data, is the authoritative catalog for southern California and is contributed to the composite earthquake catalog of the CNSS.

Figure 4. Real-time data distribution and data exchange using the Internet. TriNet, UNR, UCB, CICESE, Indiana University — Princeton Earth Physics Project (PEPP), and the IRIS DMC all receive ANZA data in real-time. Data from selected UNR (blue triangles) and UCB (red triangles) are also received at UCSD.

Real-Time Data Exchange

In the Fall of 1998, we started looking into the concept of a “Virtual Seismic Network” (Harvey, et al. 1998; Pavlis and Vernon, 1998; Vernon and Wallace, 1999). This concept is based on the idea that it would be possible to use available data sources on the Internet from other regional networks to augment the coverage of each network while minimizing the operational costs. As part of this project, real-time data exchanges were established between UCSD and UC Berkeley, UCSD and the University of Alaska, and UCSD and the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) (Figure 4). This testing provided a big return during the Fall of 1999. The Hector Mine earthquake and aftershock sequence occurred between the UNR and the ANZA networks (Figure 5). The real-time automatic location algorithms of each network would locate a significant number of the aftershocks close to or inside each network. This is especially important for the UNR network since the biased locations were near the Nevada Test Site and Nuclear Repository Site and UNR has very stringent reporting requirements for events near these sites. By integrating waveforms from both networks together in real-time, both UNR and ANZA were able to accurately determine these locations, eliminating significant amounts of work for both groups. In April 2000, a real-time data feed was started between UCSD and CICESE in Ensenada, Baja California. We intend to continue providing real-time data to other regional seismic networks and remote users.

Figure 5. Hector Mine mainshock and aftershocks recorded by ANZA and UNR networks. By exchanging data in real-time, both UNR (orange and blue triangles) and ANZA (red triangles) were able to eliminate location biases in each of their networks. The ANZA network used the UNR stations marked by blue triangles.

Data Review and Archive

The routine processing occurs on a daily basis. All new seismic data are automatically copied to DLT tape on a daily basis for off-line storage at UCSD. The next step is to review the automatic P and S phase picks from all events. The hypocenters and magnitudes for all events are calculated. Standard spectral source parameters are calculated for all events within 50 km of the network. Teleseismic phases are associated with the QED (which is also updated daily via the Internet) and PDE catalogs. Finally, these parameters are stored in a permanent on-line Datascope relational database which includes complete event segmented waveforms.

All 40 and 1 sps data (BH, SH, LH) and event segmented 100 sps data (HH, HL, EH) data are sent directly to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) in Seattle, Washington for permanent archiving and data distribution. In November 1999, a Sun computer running the Antelope software was installed at the IRIS DMC. At this time we started transferring ANZA data over the Internet to the DMC in real-time where automatic processes move these data into the permanent DMC archive on a daily basis (Figure 4). This is an extremely reliable mechanism for archiving data at the DMC, saving time for personnel at the DMC and UCSD, saving the costs of shipping and tapes, and making data immediately available to the seismological community. Appendix B shows the requests for ANZA data at the IRIS DMC since December 1997.

Education and Outreach with Web Based Real-Time Access

The ability to supply accurate data and information to both the scientific community and the general public in real-time is realizable. Within hours after the Hector Mine earthquake stuck southern California (2:45am local time), our initial webpage (http://eqinfo.ucsd.edu/special_events/1999/290/a/index.html) was available to the public detailing the location, magnitude, and recorded waveform plots of the event. Extracted waveforms in SEED format were immediately available and requests for SAC format data were also accommodated for the scientific community. Maps on these websites were updated daily to display the latest aftershocks and waveforms were provided for the most significant aftershocks.

A very popular site among visitors to our webpages is the real-time map showing events recorded by the Anza network (http://eqinfo.ucsd.edu/current_earthquakes/anza/local.html). There are actually two pages: one for teleseismic events and a second for local events. Both pages list all events that have been recorded in the previous two weeks with maps that display each event scaled to magnitude and color coded by time. Maps are updated every 30 minutes as new events occur or are reviewed by an analyst. We also maintain links to other sources of seismology web sites.

An important aspect of our education and outreach efforts is our real-time data delivery to the Princeton Earth Physics Project (PEPP). Professor Gary Pavlis, at Indiana University, distributes ANZA data to high school students nationwide as part of the PEPP program (http://aesn.geology.indiana.edu/). In addition, the ANZA network provides real-time data to San Diego State University for seismic information displays and media access.

We now have a prototype webpage that allows real-time display of waveforms to anyone that has internet access (http://epicenter.ucsd.edu:5804). Currently, it displays all waveforms for a given array in 1 hour or 12 hour time windows with automatic detections, triggers, and arrivals highlighted. We are working on increasing the flexibility of the program to allow the user to specify which station and channel they would like displayed and the length of time needed. A similar technique will also be applied to allow users to display waveforms for a single event.

Seismic Hazards of the Region

The southern California region has generated nearly 50 magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes since 1850 (Ellsworth, 1990). Sixty percent of these moderate to large earthquakes are associated with the San Andreas and San Jacinto fault systems and their continuations into Baja California. It is interesting to note that only seven of these events have significant surface rupture. These events include the 1857 Fort Tejon (Mw = 7.8) along the Cholame and Mojave segments of the San Andreas, the 1940 (Mw = 6.9) and 1979 (Mw = 6.4) on the Imperial Fault, the 1968 (Mw = 6.5) Borrego Mountain and 1987 (Mw = 6.5) Superstition Hills located on the southern San Jacinto fault, and the 1952 (Mw = 7.5) Kern County, the 1992 (Mw = 7.4) Landers, and the 1999 Hector Mine (Mw = 7.1) which are not directly associated with the San Andreas-San Jacinto fault system. These historical surface ruptures are shown in Figure 2 which also highlights the two major sections without significant surface offsets: the San Bernardino and Coachella Valley segments of the San Andreas fault and the San Bernardino, San Jacinto Valley, Anza, and the Coyote Creek segments of the San Jacinto fault.

The San Jacinto fault zone is one of the most active strike-slip faults in southern California. The long-term slip rate is 1 cm/year, determined from 29 kilometers offset of geologic formations across the fault in the last 3 million years (Sharp, 1967). Recent measurements of offset sediments in the Anza Valley yield a similar slip rate (Rockwell, et al. 1990). The Anza segment of the San Jacinto fault zone has been identified by Thatcher et al. (1975) as a seismic slip gap for a 6 < M < 7 earthquake. The study of Sanders and Kanamori (1984) revealed a 15 km element of the estimated seismic gap that has been includely aseismic in modern times. Klinger and Rockwell (1989) trenched the San Jacinto Fault at Hog Lake located in the center of the Anza seismic gap and found evidence for surface rupture from three events since 1210. Additional evidence suggests that these events occurred about 1210, 1530, and 1750.

In 1988, the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (USGS Open File Report 88-398) defined the Anza segment to be the 50 km section between the southern end of the inferred 1899 M=6.4 (Abe, 1988), 1918 M=6.8 (Ellsworth, 1990) rupture just north of Anza and the north end of the 1968 Borrego Mountain M=6.8 surface rupture (Figure 6). They used a slip rate of 11 mm/yr, a recurrence interval of 142 years, and assumed the previous event in this segment was 1892. Based on this information a probability of 0.3 was assigned for a magnitude 7 earthquake in the Anza area in the next 30 years.

Figure 6. Seismicity in the southern California region since 1981 with Ml > 1.5. Major earthquakes with observed or inferred offsets are shown with blue arrows. The red arrows designate the two major slip deficits in southern California, 3 meters for the Anza gap on the San Jacinto fault and 6 meters for the Coachella segment of the San Andreas fault. Earthquakes of magnitudes 7+ and 8+ respectively are required to eliminate these slip deficits.

Recently, the Southern California Earthquake Center presented its Phase II report which reassesses the results of the 1988 report. Using the results of Klinger and Rockwell (1989) and Rockwell et al. (1990), the Anza segment of the San Jacinto fault zone is considered by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (1995) to be the entire 90 km long Clark fault with an average repeat time for a magnitude 7.0 to 7.5 to be 250 (+321, -145) years. Because the dimension of the segment increased, the characteristic slip is now 3.0 m (Figure 6).

The most significant recent information to be developed for the seismic potential of the Anza segment is the 1750 date for the last major earthquake. Using the 142 year recurrence interval of the 1988 report a magnitude 7 earthquake is now 100 years overdue. If one prefers the Phase II report then the characteristic earthquake can be a magnitude 7.5 with the peak in the conditional probability distribution in the year 2000. In either scenario, the characteristic earthquake can generate significant damage in the major population areas of San Diego (90 km distant), the San Bernardino Valley (60 km), and the Los Angeles basin (90-150 km) (Figure 2). In similar situations, significant damage was caused in San Francisco at 120 km distance by the magnitude 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta and in various parts of the Los Angeles basin by the magnitude 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake over 100 km from the source.

Seismicity Recorded by the ANZA Network

Since the installation of the ANZA network in 1982, there have been nine earthquakes in southern California with magnitudes 6.0 or greater. The ANZA network recorded eight of these mainshocks, the exception being the 1986 Mw = 6.2 North Palm Springs event (Figure 7). Numerous aftershocks from each of these events were recorded on scale and in the cases of the 1987 Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills events, the 1992 Landers and Joshua Tree earthquakes, and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, foreshocks were recorded as well.

Figure 7. All earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 1.9 recorded on the ANZA network.

The evolution of the ANZA network instrumentation has greatly increased the quality of the data from regional and teleseismic events. During the 1992 Joshua Tree-Landers-Big Bear sequence, when the ANZA stations used short-period sensors with 16-bit dynamic range, only the events with magnitudes less than 5.5 were unclipped. After the 1993 upgrade to broadband sensors with 24-bit dynamic range, the 17 January 1994, Mw = 6.8, Northridge earthquake was recorded on-scale. However the 16 October 1999, Mw 7.1, Hector Mine clipped all stations after the S wave arrivals. Another interesting example of the broadband capability for recording teleseismic events by the ANZA network is shown in Figure 8 for the 4 May 2000, Ms= 7.4, Sulawesi, Indonesia earthquake which occurred at a distance of 114°. For comparison, an example of a local Ml = 4.9 is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 8. On-scale broadband recordings of the M=7.4 4 May 2000 Sulawesi, Indonesia earthquake recorded by the ANZA network. The coherent arrivals from this earthquake are a striking example of how the ANZA network can be used as a teleseismic broadband array.

 

Figure 9. Broadband recordings a local Anza M=4.9 26 July 1997 earthquake recorded by the ANZA network

Smaller earthquakes along the San Jacinto fault zone have a strong tendency to occur in one of four clusters of activity (Figure 10). These clusters have in general been persistent seismic features of the entire eighteen-year operational period, but with systematic variations within clusters. The Cahuilla cluster, which is ~ 15 km west of the trace of the San Jacinto fault, has shallow seismicity, less than 6 km from the surface. The Hot Springs cluster at the north end of the array lies between the mapped traces of the Hot Springs faults at depths of 15 to 22 km. The Table Mountain/Toro Peak cluster is a more diffuse zone of seismicity that spans the trifurcation of the San Jacinto fault into the Buck Ridge and Coyote Creek faults, and the seismicity ranges from about 7 to 17 km deep. There are a few events along the trace of the San Jacinto, e.g., a smaller cluster right beneath the town of Anza; however, the dominant pattern of activity lies off the main trace of the fault. Each of these clusters has produced at least one magnitude 4 event during the operational period of the ANZA network.

Research Results Based on ANZA Data

Data and data products from the ANZA network are used by students and researchers at UCSD and other academic institutions (Appendix B).

Fault Zone Trapped Waves

Recently, Li, et al. (1997) showed fault-zone guided waves recorded at the seismic arrays deployed above the Hot Springs cluster (Figure 10) in the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ) near Anza. Three linear arrays were deployed, two on the Casa Loma strand and one on the Hot Springs strand, observing microearthquakes occurring within the fault zone. The guided wavetrains characterized by relatively large amplitudes and long period following S-waves were observed only when both the stations and events were located within or close to the fault. The amplitude spectra of guided waves showed peaks at frequencies of 4 to 6 Hz, which decreased sharply with distance from the fault.

Figure 10. Local seismicity of all events recorded between 1982 and 2000 in the central region of the ANZA network. The four local clusters of activity, Hot Springs, Cahuilla, Anza, and Toro Peak-Table Mountain are designated by dashed ellipses. The Anza Seismicity Gap first described by Sanders and Kanamori (1984) is shown in the gray box.

We further found that the significant fault-zone guided waves were only recorded at the seismic arrays across the Casa Loma fault (CLF) which is the southern strand of the SJFZ northwest of Anza, but not at the array deployed across the Hot Springs fault (HSF) which is the northern strand of the SJFZ. This suggests that a low-velocity waveguide exists on the southern fault strand, but not at the northern fault strand. The locations of events for which we observed fault-zone guided waves suggest that this waveguide extends about 30 km along the CLF between the towns of Hemet and Anza. Since the deepest event for which we observed fault-zone guided waves at the CLF occurred at the depth of about 18 km, we interpret that the waveguide extends to 18 km depth, which is consistent with the floor of the seismogenic layer in this region. The data also show that the waveguide on the CLF dips northeastward at 75-80° while it becomes nearly vertical in the Anza slip gap.

In a current project, we installed three 350-m-long 12-element seismic arrays in 1999, across the Coyote Creek fault (CCF), Clark Valley fault (CVF), and Buck Ridge fault (BRF) of the San Jacinto fault zone southeast of Anza, California, to record microearthquakes (Vernon and Li, manuscript in preparation). We observed 4-7 Hz fault-zone trapped waves at stations located close to the fault trace for events occurring within the fault zone. The width of the waveguide is 75-100 m on the BRF and CVF, but is ~75 m on the CCF. The low-velocity waveguides on the BRF, CCF, and CVF are similar but narrower to the waveguide on the Casa Loma fault strand northwest of Anza (Li et al., 1997). Trapped waves also reveal that the waveguide on the BRF dips southwestward while the waveguide on the CVF dips northeastward. They merge into a single waveguide at the seismogenic depth, running northward through Anza slip gap. The waveguide on the CCF in Coyote Ridge is nearly vertical. As in the previous trapped wave study, the precise earthquake locations provided by the ANZA network were essential for the interpretations in this study.

Nucleation processes of large earthquakes

ANZA data has been used for detailed examination of foreshocks and mainshocks. Mori (1996) used the high dynamic range of the ANZA network to examine the rupture directivity and slip distribution of the Ml 4.3 foreshock to the 1992 Joshua Tree earthquake. Two recent papers (Ellsworth and Beroza, 1995; Beroza and Ellsworth, 1996) utilized nine events recorded on the ANZA network with magnitudes as low as 3.5 to study the seismic evidence for an earthquake nucleation phase.

Receiver Functions

Lewis et al. (2000) analyzed teleseismic P waves recorded at the Anza broadband stations and compiled in Datascope relational database tables. They selected records from 67 earthquakes with impulsive, high signal-to-noise P waves and used the teleseismic receiver function technique to obtain a profile of the crustal thickness of the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith. Based on their analysis, the Moho appears to have an unusually steep dip (compared to other studies such as Richards-Dinger and Shearer (1997) and Zhu and Kanamori (2000) beneath the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith. The results from the study show that the estimated crustal thickness does not correspond to surface topography. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with the Airy compensation mechanism. Lewis et al. (2000) suggest that the thinning of the crust beneath the eastern Peninsular Ranges is a result of significant extension of the lower crust of the Eastern Peninsular Ranges that is related to the rifting of the Salton trough (Figure 11).

Figure 11. Cross section of Moho depth (“+” and “x” symbols indicate depth in kilometers below sea level found using different lower crustal velocities), elevation (solid line; kilometers above sea level), and stations (squares and triangles indicate the TERRAscope and ANZA networks, respectively). Note that Moho depth does not correlate to elevation. Abbreviations: CB, compositional boundary; SJFZ, San Jacinto fault zone.

Long Period P wave polarization

Vera Schulte-Pelkum, a current graduate student at IGPP, used a combination of three-component broadband single station and array data to develop an unambiguous test for the presence of anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle (Schulte-Peckum, et al., 1998). The method is also capable of locating anisotropy in depth, and resolve its magnitude versus spatial extent. The effect we exploited is the difference between the direction of wave vector and particle motion of teleseismic P onsets. The existence of this difference is an unambiguous indicator for anisotropy, and the strong frequency dependence that we observed in the particle motion and wavefront directions can be used to locate and quantify the amount of anisotropy with depth. We found surprisingly large deviations of P wavefront direction from source location azimuths. This has implications especially for regional tomography, since backprojection of travel times along the wrong azimuths could cause a bias of the resulting model.

The results in the comparison between PFO particle motion and ANZA wave vector were for measurements on broadband data. The analysis can be taken a step further by determining the wave vector direction in a range of narrow frequency bands. We applied a range of bandpass filters to the vertical arrivals before performing the cross-correlation for every band, which gives us the change of wave vector direction with frequency. With close inspection, it becomes apparent that pairs of events with a close to 180° difference in backazimuth have near exactly antisymmetric patterns of azimuth deviation over frequency (Figure 12). The event locations and frequency patterns are on the left. On the right, we flipped the sign of the northwestern event’s residuals before plotting them with the southeastern event’s residuals; they coincide nearly exactly. This means that, e.g. at 30 seconds period, the wave vector was turned towards northeast by about 5° for both events, whereas e.g. at 15 seconds, both wavefronts were turned to the southwest by about 12°. The same observation holds for other event pairs that lie 180° apart. This symmetry with backazimuth also suggests that the cause lies on the receiver end, in the upper mantle underneath ANZA, and that it has a fairly simple symmetry.

Figure 12. The results in the comparison between PFO particle motion and ANZA wave vector above are for measurements on broad-band data. It is apparent that pairs of events with a close to 180° difference in backazimuth have near exactly antisymmetric patterns of azimuth deviation over frequency. The event locations and frequency patterns are on the left. On the right, we flipped the sign of the northwestern event’s residuals before plotting them with the southeastern event’s residuals; they coincide nearly exactly.

Microseisms

Vera Schulte-Peckum, in another project, is studying continuous beamforming on noise recorded at the ANZA array. This study reveals that ocean-generated microseisms arrive on discrete azimuths (Schulte-Peckum and Earle, 1999). Transitions into different azimuth modes are triggered by regional swell events. This contradicts the idea that microseisms, in particular the higher amplitude peak at twice the predominant swell frequency, are of pelagic origin and can be used to track storms, as frequently postulated in the literature. The azimuths of primary versus double-frequency microseisms differ owing to separate mechanisms of ocean-land coupling and differences in propagation. Characteristics of land microseisms seem to be dictated by coastal geometry and regional crustal structure, which opens the possibility of studying the mechanisms of coupling as well as path effects on land.

Figure 13 shows an analysis of noise in January 1999, when ocean swell off California shows a predominantly northwesterly azimuth, surprisingly reveals a very stable base azimuth to SSW (1), interrupted by abrupt switches to W during swell events (2). During a particularly quiet day, the peak power azimuth switches to the northern Atlantic (3), accompanied by an increase in coherence and phase velocity. A comparison with records from July showed no seasonal dependence apart from a less frequent occurrence of swell events.

Figure 13. Analysis of noise in January (when ocean swell off California shows a predominantly northwesterly azimuth) surprisingly reveals a very stable base azimuth to SSW (1), interrupted by abrupt switches to W during swell events (2). During a particularly quiet day, the peak power azimuth switches to the northern Atlantic (3).

Project Plan

The ANZA network is one of the best operational seismic networks in the world in terms of performance, data delivery, and technical capabilities. For this reason alone, continued support of this network is justified. UCSD is the primary source for providing near real-time information on seismic events to the San Diego media and community. The scientific arguments for the ANZA project also remain as strong today as they were 18 years ago. The San Jacinto fault zone, with its branches and extensions into the Imperial Valley, remains one of the most active fault zones in California, and the Anza seismic gap thus remains one of the most probable sites for a moderate to major earthquake in the next few years. We are just now accumulating the amount of high quality data necessary to answer critical questions about time variability of seismicity, source mechanisms, and wave velocities. These data are essential to establishing baseline values for analysis of any future premonitory phenomena.

This network provides the highest quality data and data return rate. The ANZA system uses real-time 24-bit broadband telemetry and can easily accommodate three additional strong motion channels, which could be utilized to exploit available bandwidth. Toro Peak, the central telemetry point, is uniquely situated to provide complete coverage for the whole Coachella segment of the San Andreas fault in addition to most of the San Jacinto fault zone. These fault sections pose two of the most prominent seismic hazards in southern California. From an urban hazards viewpoint, the existing ANZA stations and line-of-sight sites available for potential future stations provide coverage for San Diego, Riverside, and Imperial Counties with a combined population of 3.8 million people.

In keeping with the spirit of cooperation which has characterized seismological research at Anza, and consistent with the scientific motivations of the ANZA network since its establishment, we will coordinate our research and operations effort with the parallel work conducted by TriNet seismologists (Dr. Egill Hauksson and Dr. Lucy Jones) and with SCEC. We will continue to provide real-time data to the regional networks: TriNet, the University of Nevada-Reno, UC Berkeley, CICESE; to the national network: USNSN; to a nationwide education outreach program: IU-PEPP; to a data collection center: IRIS DMC; and to any other end user who requests data.

Proposed Operations

The focus of this proposal is directed towards seismic network operations. We intend to continue to monitor regional and local seismicity and to provide on-scale high dynamic range recordings of moderate to large earthquakes. We also plan to continue to develop and improve the state-of-the-art for 24-bit real-time telemetry from remote sites adjacent to potential major earthquakes sources.

We propose the following developments for the ANZA network:

Field Operations

The data acquisition system of the ANZA network has improved considerably since the original network installation in 1982. Our experience in developing seismic networks and arrays based on the design of the ANZA system has directly influenced two upgrades to the ANZA network. In 2001-2004 we propose to continuously operate the following field configuration:

  1. Fourteen 3-component broadband stations.
  2. All stations using Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers.
  3. 24-bit A/D resolution on all broadband channels.
  4. 100-sps data continuous data streams.
  5. 40-sps data continuous data streams.
  6. 1-sps data continuous data streams.
  7. To move BZN and WMC stations to the south and east to enhance the combined broadband coverage of ANZA and the TriNet.

Additions to the ANZA network:

  1. IGPP has decided to provide equipment for new ANZA stations at a rate of one station per year for the next two years. Specific sites have not been determined yet, but the siting plan will be coordinated with the TriNet to provide the most significant enhancement to the broadband coverage for the San Diego region. This is a significant cost-sharing provided by the Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Foundation for Earth Sciences at UCSD.
  2. UC Santa Barbara has recently assumed ownership of the Borrego Valley Downhole Array which has 4 borehole strong motion accelerometers and 2 surface linear strong motion accelerometer arrays. We will work with UCSB to use the ANZA telemetry infrastructure to send data to UCSB and to incorporate selected channels into the ANZA real-time processing.
  3. The ANZA network will incorporate any future real-time strong motion stations providing better coverage for the San Diego region as funding becomes available.

At present the ANZA broadband stations will saturate on any event inside the array which has M > 5. This limitation also was clearly apparent for large off-array events during the Landers sequence where all events M > 6.0 saturated. This was also true for the Hector Mine mainshock. These large local events would provide essential data to the scientific and engineering community if they are recorded on-scale. The current dataloggers have the capability to record additional three channels which can be used to record strong motion sensors. With data compression, all microwave telemetry links have enough bandwidth to accommodate these extra data. We are not asking for funds under this proposal to implement this option, however we will attempt to generate the necessary funds from internal Institute resources and private sector support during the duration of this proposal.

Data Processing

From 1 October 1982 through 27 May 2000, the catalog includes waveforms and associated parameters from more than 32,000 earthquakes. We use an on-line Datascope database to store all source and waveform parameters along with pointers to easily access the waveform data.

During the period of this proposal we plan to accomplish the following:

  1. Continue real-time transmission of complete ANZA waveform data via Internet to TriNet.
  2. Continue to keep a complete and concurrent archive of the ANZA waveform data at the IRIS DMC in real-time.
  3. Determine routine locations and source parameters for all events and store the results in the Datascope relational database.
  4. Archive all new ANZA waveforms on a RAID mass storage system and provide Internet access to this data.
  5. Develop software for easier access to earthquake source and waveform parameters in Datascope relational database.
  6. Provide timely updates of network response information by providing dataless seed volumes to the IRIS DMC and other users.
  7. Add autodrm capability for accessing ANZA data.

Education and Outreach

During the period of this proposal we plan to accomplish the following:

  1. Provide information, updates, and answers concerning seismological events and issues to the media, general public, and local authorities of the greater San Diego area.
  2. Continue to provide real-time data to the Indiana University — PEPP program and San Diego State University.
  3. Maintain updated maps/web sites showing local seismicity based on real-time catalogs.
  4. After a major event of interest, provide the media and general public with accurate web pages that include web based access to waveforms, maps of event location, source parameters, links to other sites, list of FAQs about the event, and media contact information.
  5. Distribute our web address to relevant search engines.

Reports and Dissemination of Information and Data

The complete waveform data set which consists of over 32,000 events is stored on-line on a RAID mass storage. This data is stored in the standard CSS 3.0 format complete with instrument responses and is accessible over the Internet. A data request is satisfied by placing the data in our anonymous FTP directory for retrieval via the Internet or by sending a tape copy. At present we can provide data in the following formats: CSS 3.0, SAC, or SEED. The IRIS Data Management Center is maintaining a copy of our data archive which is updated on a daily basis.

We are currently developing a world-wide-web home-page for the ANZA network, http://eqinfo.ucsd.edu, which provides maps and information about our database, stations, hardware configurations. In the future it will be possible to display ANZA waveforms through this interface and we plan to provide interactive access to the waveform database.

The primary users of our data and results will be the general public and San Diego based media through our www homepage, our education and outreach real-time seismic displays in IGPP, at the Stephan Birch Aquarium at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and at San Diego State University. Additionally, researchers from academia and industry have complete access to all ANZA data and results directly through UCSD or can access data through the SCEC Datacenter or the IRIS DMC.

Related Efforts

The major coordination effort is with TriNet. We are delivering all the ANZA network data in real-time so that the ANZA data can be combined with all the TriNet data to produce earthquake locations and magnitudes based on both datasets. To minimize confusion, the TriNet will maintain a master catalog which they will submit to the composite earthquake catalog of the Council of the National Seismic System. We are also working with the TriNet to coordinate relocating two ANZA stations to improve the broadband coverage in San Diego, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. As new equipment becomes available, we will coordinate new station deployments to optimize the broadband coverage for southern California.

The ANZA network will continue to provide real-time data to San Diego State University for use in their educational program and media presentations.

The continuing operation of the ANZA Seismic Network is important to our Institute in several ways. Firstly, it provides a mechanism to have a real-time view of the local regional and teleseismic seismicity. This is important for our interactions with the San Diego news media when large earthquakes occur and in other situations where public information is needed. San Diego is the 6th largest city in the United States. Secondly, the network is important as an educational tool. Four PhDs at IGPP have been based on ANZA data as well as at least two from other universities. At present, we have one graduate student who is using ANZA data in her thesis work. More than ten undergraduate students have participated in data processing and data analysis over the years and several of those currently work in earthquake research or engineering. Finally, the ANZA model has spawned several projects, including the IRIS Kyrgyz National Network and the IRIS PASSCAL broadband arrays which are currently operating in Montana. In turn, the ANZA project directly benefits from these other projects since the developments made for these additional systems are reincorporated into the ANZA system.

Project Personnel

Curriculum Vitae: Frank L. Vernon III

Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics
Scripps Institute of Oceanography, MC 0225
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla, CA 92093, USA

Telephone: (858) 534-5537
Fax: (858) 534-6354
E-Mail: flvernon@ucsd.edu

Education:

Ph.D., Earth Sciences, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, UCSD, 1989
Dissertation: “Analysis of Data Recorded on the ANZA Seismic Network”
B.A., Physics, UCSD, 1977

Employment History:

  • 1977 – Present UCSD, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
  • 1996-Present Associate Research Geophysicist
  • 1990-1996 Assistant Research Geophysicist
  • 1989-1990 Postgraduate Research Geophysicist
  • 1980-1989 Staff Research Associate
  • 1977-1980 Development Technician

Professional Experience:

Presently Project Manager of the Seismic Array Program at UCSD IGPP. This program consists of (1) an instrumentation group, (2) a data processing group, and (3) a research component including Dr. Vladik Martinov, visiting scientist from the Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, one post-doctoral researcher, one graduate student and one undergraduate student.

Principal Investigator

  • ANZA Seismic Network
  • IRIS/PASSCAL Broadband Array
  • Kyrgyz Seismic Network

Bibliography

  • Lewis, J. L., S. M. Day, H. Magistrale, J. Eakins, F. Vernon (2000). Regional crustal thickness variations of the Peninsular Ranges, southern California. Geology. 28, 303-306.
  • Vernon, F. L., G. Pavlis, T. Owens, D. McNamara, and P. Anderson (1998). Near surface scattering effects observed with a high-frequency phased array at Pinyon Flats, California. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., 88, 1548-1560.
  • Li, Y. G., F. L. Vernon, and K. Aki (1997). San Jacinto fault-zone guided waves: A discrimination for recent active strands near Anza, California. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 11689-11702.
  • Pavlis, G. L., D. Repin, S. Radzevicius, F. Vernon (1996). Near-Surface Effects on High-Frequency Seismic Waves: Observations from Dense, Three-Component Seismic Arrays. Proceedings – 18 Annual Seismic Research Symposium. 18, 251-260.
  • Ichinose G, S. Day, H. Magistrale, T. Prush, F. Vernon, A. Edelman (1996). Crustal Thickness Variations Beneath The Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. Geo. Res. Lett., 23, 3095-3098.
  • Al-Shurki, H., G. L. Pavlis, F. L. Vernon (1995). Site Effect Observations from Broadband Arrays Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 85, 1758-1769.

Institutional Qualifications

There are substantial resources in equipment and personnel available at IGPP and UCSD which are available for this project. We have a network of Sun and HP workstations and mass storage devices including hard disks, a 350 Gbyte RAID mass storage device and a 2.5 terabyte Metrum mass storage device, and Exabyte, DAT, and DLT tape readers. There are many seismologists at IGPP who are experienced at processing and manipulating large seismic data sets, and we have considerable software designed for this purpose including the Antelope Software Package developed by Boulder Real-Time Technologies.

Project Management Plan

We request one month per year support for the Principle Investigator F. Vernon who is responsible for the operation of the ANZA network and has extensive experience in working with ANZA data since its installation in 1982. He is involved with the data processing and field operations. Three months of support per year are requested for J. Eakins who is responsible for all aspects of data management, Web pages, and public outreach. Two months of support per year are requested for G. Offield who is responsible for field work and network maintenance. Ten percent per year is requested for research project assistant to provide support involving management of the Toro Peak lease agreement and arrangement of reservations for helicopter services and vehicle rentals and project specific purchasing. We are requesting travel support to enhance the cooperative aspects of this research with members of the USGS at Pasadena.

ANZA Bibliography 1995-Present

  • Al-Shurki, H., G. L. Pavlis, F. L. Vernon (1995). Site Effect Observations from Broadband Arrays Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 85, 1758-1769.
  • Aster, R.C., G. Slad, J. Henton, and M. Antolik (1996). Differential analysis of coda Q using similar microearthquakes in seismic gaps; Part 1, Techniques and application to seismograms recorded in the Anza seismic gap, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 868-889.
  • Beroza, G. C., W. Ellsworth (1996). Properties of the seismic nucleation phase, Tectonophysics, 261, 209-227.
  • Benz, H. M., A. Frankel, D. M. Boore (1997). Regional Lg Attenuation for the Continental United States, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 87, 606-619.
  • Ellsworth, W.L., Beroza, G.C. (1995). Seismic evidence for an earthquake nucleation phase. Science, 268, 851-5.
  • Haase, J.S., P. M. Shearer and R.C. Aster (1995). Constraints on temporal variations in velocity near Anza, California, from analysis of similar event pairs, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 85, 194-206.
  • Ichinose G, S. Day, H. Magistrale, T. Prush, F. Vernon, A. Edelman (1996). Crustal Thickness Variations Beneath The Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. Geo. Res. Lett., 23, 3095-3098.
  • Lewis, J.L., S.M. Day, H. Magistrale, J. Eakins, F. Vernon (2000). Regional crustal thickness variations of the Peninsular Ranges, southern California. Geology, 28, no. 4, 303-306.
  • Li, Y. G., K. Aki, and F. L. Vernon (1997). San Jacinto fault-zone guided waves: A discrimination for recent active strands near Anza, California. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 11689-11702.
  • Li, Y.-G., F. L. Vernon (2000). Fault-zone Trapped Waves at the San Jacinto Fault Zone Southeast of Anza, California. Seis. Res. Lett. 71, 258.
  • Li, Y. G., F. L. Vernon, and K. Aki (1997). Correction to “San Jacinto fault-zone guided waves: A discrimation for recent active strands near Anza, California”. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 20437.
  • Lin, C.H., S. W. Roecker (1996). P-wave backazimuth anomalies observed by a small-aperture seismic array at Pinyon Flat, Southern California; implications for structure and source location?, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 470-476.
  • Mori, J. (1996). Rupture directivity and slip distribution of the M 4.3 foreshock to 1992 Joshua Tree earthquake, Southern California Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 805-810.
  • Pavlis, G. L., D. Repin, S. Radzevicius, F. Vernon (1996). Near-Surface Effects on High-Frequency Seismic Waves: Observations from Dense, Three-Component Seismic Arrays. Proceedings – 18 Annual Seismic Research Symposium. 18, 251-260.
  • Steidl, J. H., A. G. Tumarkin and R. J. Archuleta (1996). What is a Reference Site?, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 1733-1748.
  • Zhu, L., H. Kanamori (2000). Moho depth variation in southern Califronia from teleseismic receiver functions. J. Geophys. Res.,105, 2969-2980.

References

  • Abe (1988). Magnitudes and Origin Times From Milne Seismograph Data; Earthquakes in China and California,1898-1912 In: Lee, W.H.K., ed. Historical Seismograms and Earthquakes of the World. Acad. Press: San Diego, CA., 1988, 37-50.
  • Ellsworth, W.L. (1990). Earthquake history, 1769-1989, U.S.G.S. Open File Report 1515.
  • Harvey, D., D. Quinlan, F. Vernon, R. Hansen (1998). ORB: A New Real-Time Data Exchange and Seismic Processing System. Seis. Res. Lett. 69, 165.
  • Klinger, R. E., and T. K. Rockwell (1989). Recurrent late Holocene Faulting at Hog Lake in the Anza seismic gap, San Jacinto fault zone, Southern California GSA, Cord. Sect., Abs., 42, 102.
  • Pavlis, G. L. and F. L. Vernon (1998). Digital communications: The glue linking regional networks and IRIS-PASSCAL. EOS Trans. AGU 79, F560.
  • Richards-Dinger, K.B. and P.M. Shearer (1997). Estiating Crustal Thickness in Southern California by Stacking PmP arrivals, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 15211-15224.
  • Rockwell, T., C. Loughman, and P. Merifield (1990). Late Quaternery Rate of Slip Along the San Jacinto Fault Zone Near Anza, Southern California, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 8593-8606.
  • Sanders, C.O., and H. Kanamori (1984). A seismotectonic analysis of the Anza seismic gap, San Jacinto fault zone, southern California, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 5873-5890.
  • Schulte-Peckum, V. , P. Earle (1999). Azimuthal Variations in Partical Motion, Travel Time and Phase Velocity, EOS, 80, 683.
  • Schulte-Pelkum, V., G. Masters, F. Vernon, G. L. Pavlis (1998). P-Wave Particle Motion, Wavefront Direction, and Anisotropy. EOS Trans. AGU 79, F645.
  • Scott, J.S. (1992). Microearthquake studies in the Anza seismic gap, Ph. D. Thesis, U.C. San Diego.
  • Sharp, R.V. (1967). San Jacinto fault zone in the Peninsular ranges of southern California, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 78, 705-730.
  • Thatcher, W., J.A. Hileman, and T. C. Hanks (1975). Seismic slip distribution along the San Jacinto fault zone, southern California, and its implications, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 86, 1140-1146.
  • Vernon III, F.L. (1989). Analysis of data recorded on the ANZA seismic network, Ph. D. Thesis, U.C. San Diego.
  • Vernon, F., T. Wallace (1999). Virtual Seismic Networks. IRIS Newsletter, 18, 7-8.
  • Working Group on Caliornia Earthquake Probablities (1995). Seismic Hazards in Southern California: Probable Earthquakes, 1994 to 2024, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 85, 379-439.
  • Working Group on Caliornia Earthquake Probablities (1988). Probabilities of Large Earthquakes Occurring in California on the San Andreas Fault. USGS, openfile report, 88-398, 62pp.

Current and Pending Support

Current:

  • Collaborative Research: Geodynamics of Intracontinental Mountain Building in the Tien Shan, Central Asia NSF $378,364 4/1/99 — 3/31/02 2 man-months
  • Analysis of Broadband Seismic Measurements from the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment (w/J. Orcutt) NSF $47,114 2/1/99 — 2/28/01 3 man-months
  • Resolving Anisotropy and Heterogeneity with P Waveforms (w/G. Masters), NSF $150,283 — 7/1/99 – 16/30/01 1 man-month

Pending:

  • UCSD Broadband Array IRIS $268,600 7/1/00 — 6/30/01 4 man-months
  • Collaborative Research: Seismic Catalogue Completeness and Accuracy (w/ T. Wallace of Univ. of AZ and G. Pavlis of Indiana Univ.) DTRA $394,964 4/1/00 — 3/31/03 3 man-months
  • An Interdiscplinary Collaboration on Performance Aspects of a High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (w/H.W. Braun of the San Diego Computer Center) NSF $2,300,231 7/1/00 — 6/30/03 2.4 man-months
  • Hawaii Ocean Borehole Observatory (HOBO) Collaborative with WHOI (w/J. Orcutt)
    NSF $616,136 10/1/00 — 9/30/01 2.8 man-months
  • Collaborative Research: Crust Mantle Interactions During Continental Growth and High Pressure Rock Exhumation at an Oblique Arc-Continent Collision Zone: The SE Caribbean Margin. (w/ A. Levander of Rice University and T. Wallace of Univ. of AZ)
    NSF $260,047 4/1/01 — 3/31/04 1 man-month
  • Anza Broadband Seismic Network (this proposal) USGS $353,471
    2/1/01 — 1/31/04 1 man-month

Continuation Projects

This proposal is submitted as a continuation of USGS award HQ98AG01940 which previous years funding has been as follows:

Funding Duration Man-Months committed by PI

$75,000 2/1/98 — 1/31/99 1.25
$94,992 2/1/99 — 1/31/00 0.8
$96,673 2/1/00 — 1/31/01 0.8

Appendix A

Statistics from San Diego County

Appendix B

Data Requested through the IRIS DMC

The following image reflects the latest real-time data collected by the ANZA network in Southern California. View an interactive map of recent earthquakes in Southern California. Time is in UTC. What does this image show?

Personnel at IGPP have been responsible for the collection and distribution of seismic data from several regional networks, small aperture arrays, and portable instrument deployments. We maintain local archives of all data collected and distribute the data through the IRIS-DMC. We are part of the ANSS and recieve financial support from the USGS. We are associated with NEHRP.

Broadband Seismic Data Collection Center (ANZA)

Detailed information and research results are available for all of the networks we currently operate, or have installed in the past.

 

 

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Resources:

Homeowners – Earthquake Insurance – Quality Claims

Broadband Seismic Data Collection Center (ANZA)

ANZA network – Broadband Seismic Data Collection Center

Southern California Earthquake Data Center at Caltech

REPORT: NAFTA’s Deadly Legacy: Corporate Profits Over People And Planet

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nafta mexAhead of Transatlantic and Transpacific trade deals: ‘Remember NAFTA’.

The legacy of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), twenty years after implementation, is one of environmental degradation and corporate dominance, according to a report.

Governments on the verge of signing similar agreements—both the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) trade deals— ought to take a “page out of the history books and stop negotiating trade pacts that gut protections for our air, water, land, workers and communities,” said Ilana Solomon, director of the Sierra Club’s Responsible Trade Program, ahead of the report’s release.

nafta at workNAFTA: 20 Years of Costs to Communities and the Environment (pdf), summarizes more than 100 nonprofit, government and scholarly studies of the trade pact. It was written by the Sierra Club, Sierra Club Canada, the Mexican Action Network on Free Trade / RED MEXICANA DE ACCION FRENTE AL LIBRE COMERCIO

(RMALC), the Institute for Policy Studies, and the Council of Canadians.

According to the study, the environmental legacy of the trade pact is both widespread and varied. From fueling the proliferation of Genetically Modified (GM) agriculture in Mexico to encouraging the development of Alberta tar sands, the results have been a disaster for people and the environment.

Summarizing the report, Mike McCauliff writes:

Perhaps hardest hit is Mexico, according to the report, where expanded trade in agricultural products came at the expense of smaller farmers, who couldn’t compete with a surge in pesticide-heavy factory farms. Small farmers resorted to cutting down forests to farm more land, and still failed. A boom in mining came at the expense of local landowners, with subsequent industrial pollution.

In Canada, while the improved access to markets meant that exports to the U.S. soared by more than 200 percent from 1994 to 2008, wages stagnated. In the petroleum industry, Canada was contracted to continue shipping a certain amount of oil to the U.S., encouraging development of the high-cost tar sands in Alberta at the expense of alternative energy.

“These are not unfortunate side-effects, but rather the inevitable results of a model of trade that favors corporate profits over the interests of communities and the environment.”

Perhaps the “most harmful components” of the agreement are the “vaguely worded” investment provisions that guarantee the right to claim damages when the value of an investment has been reduced, empowering multinational corporations to challenge any government environmental initiative in private trade tribunals.

nafta4The report warns that pending agreements—the TPP, TTIP and the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)—stand to “replicate many of the worst elements of NAFTA.”

According to the report:

In the TPP the U.S. government is proposing to extend intellectual property rights to corporate patents on plant and animal life, including genetically modified organisms. These rights would be expressly recognized as a covered investment in the investment chapter, giving patent owners the right to sue countries that did not recognize (or want to import) their GM products.

It continues:

U.S. chemicals and agricultural lobbies hope that the TTIP will weaken toxic chemicals regulation in Europe, and possibly require EU countries to recognize hormones and antibiotics used in North American meat production as safe for human consumption.

The groups behind the new report urge government officials now considering the new deals to take NAFTA’s deplorable legacy into account as trade talks continue, but so far remain skeptical that the most important lessons have been learned.

RMALC“If only NAFTA countries could learn from the fiasco, but they are busy signing more NAFTA-like deals around the world, further taking away our ability to protect the environment and merely crossing their fingers that our ecosystems can sustain all this new growth,” said A. Villamar, trade policy analyst with RMALC, on the anniversary of the agreement.

The Mexican Action Network on Free Trade (RMALC) is a citizens’ coalition of unions, peasant and indigenous organizations, environmental groups, NGOs and researchers whose mission is to do research and advocate for justice on economic policy and trade issues in Mexico and globally. RMALC was created in 1991, at the juncture of the negotiations of the Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and is a founding member of the Hemispheric Social Alliance and other regional and global networks.

 

 

 

 

 

Resources:

REPORT: NAFTA

CanadaEuropean Union Comprehensive Economic

RED MEXICANA DE ACCION FRENTE AL LIBRE COMERCIO

Environmental Costs of NAFTA

 

 

Secret Operations That Are Hidden All Around You

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Project Greek Island

During the Cold War the United States government maintained a top-secret underground bunker in the mountains of West Virginia. Built under The Greenbrier, a luxurious Southern resort, the facility was designed to house the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate in case of nuclear attack.

greek islandCompromised by an investigative reporter in 1993, the bunker is now open to the public. With the code name “Project Greek Island”, it remains a sobering reminder of how America lived with and prepared for the possibility of a Soviet nuclear attack. You can enter the bunker or you can read an interview with Fritz Bugas, former on-site Superintendent of the Greenbrier bunker.

The Green Brier: Five Star Fallout Shelter


bunker007Atomic tourist attractions, radioactive and otherwise, can be found all over the world, but here in the U.S. the landscape is literally pocked with them. Indeed, if John Q. Public was atomically inclined, he could load up the SUV and take the family on a two-month summer vacation and STILL not see everything that’s out there. CONELRAD, through links and our own first person accounts, will attempt to cover all your sightseeing needs. The following article about the decommissioned government fallout shelter underneath the Greenbrier Hotel is our inaugural travelogue.

In the summer of 1992 the Washington Post revealed the existence the immense government shelter you are about to read about. The nation yawned. Assemble at the Bunker officeThe Cold War had been over for about a year and America was on to new diversions. Thus the news of this ridiculous and fascinating tax sinkhole left over from the fifties took a back seat to L.A. riots and a cantankerous Texas billionaire. Anxious Atomic tourist would have to cool their heels for a few years before the Greenbrier Hotel management bowed to nascent Cold War nostalgia and opened their blast doors to the public. (The bunker is also available for group events and “unique theme parties.”) But as anyone who has taken the tour will tell you, it was well worth the wait.

Project X, then Project Casper and finally Project Greek Island were the original code-names for the shelter. Its SOLE intended occupant was always the Congress of the United States and their aides. To mangle the familiar Titanic slogan: WOMEN AND CHILDREN…NOT ADMITTED. There are emergency relocation sites for the other branches of government such as Mount Weather in Northern Virginia and Site R (near Camp David, MD) which still remain operational.

Greenbrier HotelIn an extraordinary bit of government back scratching the Eisenhower Administration, via the Architect of the Capitol, negotiated to build the structure on the grounds of the Greenbrier Hotel; a five star resort located five hours south of Washington in White Sulphur Springs, W. VA. In exchange for government financing of the Greenbrier’s West Virginia Wing addition, the hotel permitted the simultaneous construction of the shelter beneath it. This provided the initial cover story for the digging of the congressional hideaway. Ground was broken in 1957 and the Greenbrier employee newsletter noted the occasion by “informing” staff that “testing” was being conducted for the new wing.

Light at the beginning of the tunnel...

Serendipitously, the bunker and the West Virginia Wing of the Greebrier were completed just in time for the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962. This remained the only occasion the shelter ever went on full alert. As the Cold War played out over the decades, Project Greek Island was quietly maintained and updated by the Army Signal Corps and sworn-to-secrecy Greenbrier staff. Incredibly, the government employees posed as on-site TV repairmen and had orders to blend in with the townsfolk. No matter how patriotic these government employees were, serving their country by posing as TV repairmen in White Sulphur Springs, W. VA must have been the Cold War equivalent to directing traffic or walking a third shift sentry beat.

GreenbrierAd_thumb3The bunker managed to outlast the Soviet Union by a margin of about a year. And if it weren’t for that Washington Post expose,“The Ultimate Congressional Hideaway” it would probably still be up and running. As things turned out, shortly after that article was published, Project Greek Island was decommissioned. In 1995 the first tours of the bunker began exclusively for Greenbrier guests. Beginning in 1997 anyone with 25 bucks could get a guided tour twice a week.

The “former government relocation facility” is one of the strangest “educational” experiences. The left over propaganda posters (which are now “exhibits”) warning staff never to divulge their mission is the creepiest reminder that the public was never intended to see the inside of the shelter. The public, of course, was supposed to remain blissfully ignorant of any such government contingency plans. The size, weirdness and relative extravagance of the Greenbrier bunker make it—hands down—the “Graceland” of Atomic Tourism. Though there is no “Jungle Room,” per se, you do get to see exactly where Newt Gingrich would have slept through Armageddon. In other words, every tour of the Greenbrier is strictly Platinum.

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Raven-rock-site-r-logo

Raven Rock Mountain Complex

The Raven Rock Mountain Complex (RRMC) is a military installation with an underground nuclear bunker near Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania, at Raven Rock Mountain that serves as an “underground Pentagon” (colloq.). The bunker has emergency operations centers for the Army, Navy, and Air Force.

The installation’s largest tenant unit is the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and RRMC communications are the responsibility of the 114th Signal Battalion. The facility has 38 communications systems, and the Defense Information Systems Agency provides computer services at the complex. Additional names for the installation are Raven Rock Military Complex, National Military Command Center Reservation (NMCC-R), Backup Pentagon“, Site R, or “The Rock.”

In 1948 as the cold war with Russia was heating up, plans were developed to build a hidden underground infrastructure. Things began to boil over in 1949 when the Soviets detonated a nuclear explosive, by 1951 construction began. A 1/2 million cubic yards of granite were hauled away from the mountains in as little as 10 months. In 1953 buildings A, B, and C opened, followed 10 years later by buildings D, and E. The entire complex consists of 66 buildings and 716 acres. Beneath the mountains, and hidden behind massive steel doors, the compound houses their own power plant and water reservoir. Within the grounds is a subterranean living quarters, fitness center, medical facility, chapel, and even a convenience store. Its believed to hold enough supplies to last 3,000 people approximately 30 days. This massive underground headquarters is meant to act as the defense headquarters in times of war. It’s believed former Vice President Cheney frequented the base quite often in the days following 9/11.

RR complexMost of the activities that take place in this massive underground complex are highly classified. In May of 2007 the Federal Register published a Department of Defense policy declaring it unlawful for any person “entering in or on the property…to make any photograph, sketch, picture, drawing, map or geographical representation of the Raven Rock Mountain Complex without first obtaining the necessary permission.”

raven-rock-news2

Documents and Resources

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Underground Bases

This is a list of known or suspected U.S. Underground Bases, the purpose of each (hey, I’m just passing on the reports…), how they’re set up and any other info known about them. Although most of these are supposed to be a secret, this list is culled from publicly available records (is that good or bad?) and of course people who worked in them, live by them or those who have retired and offer info. Some wish to remain anonymous. Some have written to me with stories that have been terrifying – just to tell me things – not meaning for me to put them up. I have a bad habit of keeping secrets, which is good. The map, which is large, has been made into a pop-up window so you can minimize it as you read the list, and not have to flip between pages. Mouse over the pins for the location.

I found some interesting stats in my digging – the Government (federal and/or federal and state) is the biggest landholder/owner in the states that the underground bases are purported to be in.

Top 10 ranked in order of % of state land owned (acres) by federal – states governments:

% of state acreage federally owned
% owned by federal and state gov. combined
1 Nevada – 87.8% 1 Alaska – 96.8%
2 Utah – 67.9% 2 Nevada – 89.2%
3 Alaska – 67% 3 Utah – 75.2%
4
Idaho – 65.2%
4 Idaho – 70.4%
5 Oregon – 55.5% 5 Oregon – 60.4%
6 California – 49.9% 6 Arizona – 56.8%
7 Wyoming – 49.7% 7 Wyoming – 56%
8 Arizona – 44.3% 8 California – 52.1%
9 Colorado – 38.9$ 9 New Mexico – 47.5%
10 New Mexico – 36.2% 10 Colorado – 43.3%

http://www.nwi.org/Maps/LandChart.html Much of the US is honeycombed with naturally occurring caves and caves systems, sinkholes and abandoned mines – especially in the West – so it’s not all that far-fetched when you think about it. Presented for your perusal is the whole mess, for your own conclusions. I thank those who sent info in. All email addresses on file and rabidly protected as I do everyone’s privacy. Any others with info, you’re cordially invited to dish the goods, too.

U.S. Underground Military Facilities . . . click for map

ALASKA

1. Brooks Range, Alaska

2. Delta Junction, Alaska

2a. Fort Greeley, Alaska (reported by Peachy)
In the same Delta Junction area

ARIZONA

1. Arizona (Mountains) (not on map)
Function: Genetic work.
Multiple levels

2. Fort Huachuca, Arizona (also reported detainment camp)
Function: NSA Facility
Notes: (I lost the name of who sent me this..let me know..)
“Having spent the better part of my life there I can assure you of only one thing, it is THE communications command central for the entire US Army (and rumored to be for the entire US forces) No phone call, two way radio transmission, satellite transmission, fax, etc., within the Army goes undocumented and un “cleared” by this facility. It is VERY high on the “first to be hit in a nuclear war” list, (as supposedly most communications with the Army are actually routed though there) thus all the missile silos that were (not really) deactivated around Tucson, some 75 miles to the NW”.

“As for any underground activity, I have no idea, but I do know this, they also do “radar testing” there. They put “planes” on a tower and fire a radar at them to “get a reading”(?) from a HUGE (I’d say 10 story) microwave radar dish. (it was visible from the highway several miles away). The whole facility sat out in the middle of a several hundred (or possibly thousands) acre field, oddly devoid of most all naturally occurring groundcover, bushes and trees for the area except for wild grass, and even that was very seldom green. HMMMM. My Dad used to work the crane lifting these “planes” onto the tower, a duty they only allowed each person to do for a few weeks and then only one or two rotations in a lifetime – can you say radioactive sickness? By the way, he recently went though his THIRD fight with cancer in 8 years). He had to have the highest level clearance ever given to any civilian in his branch of the civil service. He said many times these “planes” were under tarps, (which were never lifted while he was present) and didn’t have any shape he recognized as an airplane at all, but when they did put an actual plane up there, they were usually older and even many times, out of service models. Now why would they need radar info on those? Can you say smokescreen?
I was constantly amazed how many times my friends and I would go out 4-wheeling MILES in the opposite direction of the Fort, and would run into locked gates with “No Entrance, Govt Property” signs on them! Needless to say, the Govt owned much of the land around the Sierra Vista/Ft Huachuca area.
Just thought you’d like to know.”

2. Luke Air Force Base

3. Munds Park, Arizona highway rest stop (reported by Dumpgoddess. Verified by Sid and also Becky, who says she was almost arrested asking what the hell they were doing there when they were building this thing)

Dumpgoddess told me she used to work at a highway rest area known as Munds Park. One day some military trucks and men pulled in and pretty much said OK, thanks for working here, we’re closing the place, Buh-bye!” They spent years expanding the site and then left. The rest stop is still closed to any traffic and the entrance and exit road to it from the highway have been ripped up. Another person I know in that area said there are unmarked military trucks and vehicles parked in the back now and the place “is huge” compared to what it was, and looks quite deserted in spite of the construction.

“I live 20 miles out of Flagstaff AZ. .There is a rest area 1/2 mile away. When the government was building this rest area it took almost 3 1/2yrs to complete, and there were tall fences with dark canvas-like tarps all the way around the area so no one could see what was going on .There were also big army looking trucks pulling in and out all night, every night. Everyone in Munds Park could hear them coming and going. Now the govt. is closing the rest area for good. I’m told the fences will be put back up. I would bet my life on the fact that there is something under this rest area. You see I worked at Christensen (name of rest area) up untill a week ago.

4. Page, Arizona
Tunnels to: Area 51, Nevada Dulce base, New Mexico

5. Sedona, Arizona (also reported detainment camp)
Notes: Located under the Enchantment Resort in Boynton Canyon. There have been many reports by people in recent years of “increased military presence and activity” in the area. A local resident, Deana, told me her and her husband are thinking of moving because it’s gotten so intrusive. Sedona is felt to be a very spiritual area and was (is) a cultural and holy area for Native Americans and is stunningly gorgeous.

6. Wikieup, Arizona
Tunnels to: Area 51

7. Yucca (Mtns.), Arizona

CALIFORNIA
1: 29 Palms, California
Tunnels to: Chocolate Mts., Fort Irwin, California (possibly one more site due west a few miles)
Notes: Some Alien autopsies said to have been performed at 29 Palms.

2: Benicia, California

3. Catalina Island, California
Tunnels to: I was told by someone who worked at the Port Hueneme Naval Weapons Division Base in Oxnard that they have heard and it is ‘common rumor’ that there is a tunnel from the base to this Island, and also to Edwards Air Force Base, possibly utilizing old mines. .

4. China Lake Naval Weapons Testing Center

5. Chocolate Mountains, California
Tunnels to: Fort Irwin, California

6. Death Valley,California
Function: The entrance to the Death Valley Tunnel is in the Panamint Mountains down on the lower edge of the range near Wingate Pass, in the bottom of an abandoned mine shaft. The bottom of the shaft opens into an extensive tunnel system

7. Deep Springs, California
Function: Supposed home to alien species working with government
Tunnels to: Death Valley, Mercury, NV, Salt Lake City

8. Edwards AFB, California
Function: Aircraft Development – antigravity research and vehicle development
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: Catalina Island Fort Irwin, California Vandenburg AFB, California
Notes: Delta Hanger – North Base, Edwards AFB, Ca. Haystack Buttte – Edwards, AFB, Ca.

9. Fort Irwin, California (also reported detainment camp)
Tunnels to: 29 Palms, California Area 51, Nevada Edwards AFB. California Mt. Shasta, California

10. Helendale, California
Function: Special Aircraft Facility
Helendale has an extensive railway/shipping system through it from the Union Pacific days which runs in
from Salt Lake City, Denver, Omaha, Los Angeles and Chicago

11. Lancaster, California
Function: New Aircraft design, anti-gravity engineering, Stealth craft and testing
Levels: 42
Tunnels To: Edwards A.F.B., Palmdale

12. Lawrence-Livermore International Labs, California
The lab has a Human Genome Mapping project on chromosome #19
and a newly built $1.2 billion laser facility

13. Moreno Valley, California
Function unknown

14. Mt. Lassen, California
Tunnels to: Probably connects to the Mt. Shasta main tunnel.
Notes: Two alien races living inside mountain.

15. Mt. Shasta (click for photo of rays coming out of cave).
Function: Genetic experiments, magnetic advance, space and beam weaponry.
Levels: 5
Tunnels to: Ft. Irwin, California North (maybe to Klamath Falls or Crater Lake, or both.

16. Napa, California
Functions: Direct Satellite Communications, Laser Communications. Continuation of Government site.
Levels: Multi-level
Tunnels to: Unknown
Notes: Located on Oakville Grade, Napa County, Ca. 87 Acres

17. Needles, California
Function unknown

18. Palmdale, California
Function: New Aircraft Design, anit-gravity research

19. Tehachapi Facility (Northrop, California – Tejon Ranch
Function: Levels: 42
Tunnels to: Edwards, Llona and other local areas
Notes: 25 miles NW of Lancaster California, in the Tehachapi mountains.

20. Ukiah, California
Function unknown

COLORADO

1. Near Boulder, Co. in the mountains
Function unknown

2. Cheyenne Mountain -Norad -Colorado Springs, Colorado
Function: Early Warning systems – missile defense systems – Space tracking
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: Colorado Springs,
Function: Early warning systems, military strategy, satellite operations
Levels: Multiple
NORAD is a massive self-sustaining ‘city’ built inside the mountain
Tunnels to: Creede, Denver, Dulce Base, Kinsley

3. Creede, Colorado
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Colorado Springs, Colorado – Delta, Colorado – Dulce Base, New Mexico

4. Delta, Colorado
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Creede Salt Lake, Utah

5. Denver International Airport (also a detainment camp)
Function: Military research, construction, detainment camp facilities
Levels: 7 reported
Tunnels to: Denver proper, Colorado and Rocky Mountain “safehousing”, Colorado Springs, Colorado (Cheyenne Mtn.), Riverton, Wyoming Notes: Constructed in 1995, the government and politicians were hell bent on building this airport in spite of it ending up vastly overbudget. Charges of corruption, constant construction company changes, and mass firings of teams once they had built a section of their work was reported so that no “one” group had any idea what the blueprint of the airport was. Not only did locals not want this airport built nor was it needed, but everything was done to make sure it was, period. Masonic symbols and bizarre artwork of dead babies, burning cities and women in coffins comprise an extensive mural as well as a time capsule – none of which is featured in the airport’s web site section detailing the unique artwork throughout the building. DIA is reported to serve as a cover for the vast underground facilities that were built there. There are reports of electronic/magnetic vibrations which make some people sick and cause headaches in others. There are acres of fenced-in areas which have barbed wire pointing into the area as if to keep things in, and small concrete stacks that resemble mini-cooling towers rise out of the acres of nowhere to apparently vent underground levels.

See site article and photos at Denver Airport

6. Falcon Air Force Base, Falcon, Colorado
Function: SDI, Satellite Control
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: Colorado Springs, possibly more.

7. Fort Collins, Colorado
Function: Suspect high precision equipment manufacturing for space.

8. Grand Mesa, Colorado
Function unknown

9. Gore Range Near Lake, west of Denver, Co.
Function: Library and Central Data Bank

10. San Juan Valley, Colorado
Hidden beneath and in an operating Buffalo Ranch
Function unknown

11. Telluride, Colorado
Function unknown

12. University of Denver, Co (Boulder area)
Function: Genetics, geology/mining as related to tunneling and underground construction.

13. Warden Valley West of Fort Collins, CO
Function Unknown
Tunnels to: Montana

GEORGIA
Dobbins Air Force Base, Marrietta GA
Function: test site for plasma and antigravity air craft, experimental crafts and weapons

INDIANA
Kokomo, Indiana
Function Unknown
Notes: for years people in that area have reported a “hum” that has been so constant that some have been forced to move and it has made many others sick. It seems to come from underground, and “research” has turned up nothing although it was suggested by someone that massive underground tunneling and excavating is going on, using naturally occurring caverns, to make an underground containment or storage facility.

KANSAS
1. Hutchinson, Kansas
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Kinsley, Nebraska

2. Kansas City, Kansas
Function unknown
Notes: Entrance near Worlds of Fun

3. Kinsley, Kansas
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Colorado Springs, Colorado; Hutchinson, Kansas; Tulsa Kokoweef Peak, SW California
Notes: Gold stored in huge cavern, blasted shut. Known as the “midway city” because it’s located halfway between New York and San Francisco

MARYLAND
Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland (from Don)
Martins AFB, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

Don wrote: I was just looking at your satellite photo of the chem trails over the East Coast (Maryland in particular), and I noticed a strange coincidence. I’m from Maryland and I noticed that the two streaks over the state seem to run next to major military installations. The more eastern of the two runs over Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Arsenal, and Martins AFB. The more western of the two runs near Ft. Meade. Aberdeen Proving Ground and Edgewood Arsenal seem to have a lot of strange or peculiar things about them as well. I live near both and often can hear the weapons testing. I know for a fact that there are large storages of chemical weapons at Edgewood. In high school, we had to do pressurization drills once a month where the entire school would pile into the gym and we would seal the gym and pressurize it to keep the gas out. There are sirens all over the community they test once a week (every Wed. at 4) that are to alert of potential chemical weapons leaks. There is constant military air traffic all over the area, and chemtrails are a regular occurrence (until I was about 18, I thought it was normal for contrails to stay for at least 6 hours!). These two bases are always heavily guarded and secured, even before 9/11. One of my friend’s dad is an army chemist out there, and he is not allowed to even discuss what he does. The only way I knew that he was a chemist was because he is a doctor and the insignia on his uniform is from the chemical corps. He is very secretive and often disappears late at night to go to work, apparently at a moment’s notice (he has two pagers, a govt. one and his regular one). Aberdeen Proving Grounds is the United States’ largest military testing facility, and Edgewood Arsenal is it’s largest store of arms. I could fill a book with the peculiarities of these two installations.

MONTANA
Bozeman, Mont.
Function: Genetics

NEVADA
Area 51 – Groom Lake – Dreamland – Nellis Air Force Base
Area 51 was said to exist only in our imaginations until Russian satellite photos were leaked to US sources and it’s amazing how you can get photos all over now of it, and even posters. It’s also amazing how much they’ve been busy little bees building this base up.

Function: Stealth and cloaking Aircraft research & development
“‘Dreamland (Data Repository Establishment and Maintenance Land)
Elmint (Electromagnetic Intelligence), Biological weapons research and genetic manipulation/warfare storage, Cold Empire, EVA, Program HIS (Hybrid Intelligence System),BW/CW; IRIS (Infrared Intruder Systems), BI-PASS, REP-TILES,
back engineering of captured space craft propulsion systems, holding area of all alien materials and bodies/prisoners,
Security: Above ground cameras, underground pressure sensors, ground and air patrol
Notes: Operating rooms on several floors, – Complete hospital, fully staffed and has everything imaginable. – The person who gave this info worked as a locksmith in Area 51 for 12 years. He did not see any creatures while on any of the levels, but admits that there were many closed areas that he was not allowed into and he talked to others who said they had seen either actual captured UFOs or own own UFOs and that some thought they had been given freely in an exchange program as it wasn’t possible so many UFOs could n’t have crashed and been recovered in such pristine condition.
Tunnels to: Ft. Irwin, California – Page, Arizona – Tonopah, Nevada – Wiciup, Arizona
S-4 Area in Area 51 Function unknown
Addendum: I have been told by many people (all military) that Area 51 isn’t really where much is going on – or at least the whole “aliens/crashed saucers are there” mystique is a bit hyped because the area is able to be so secured. That illusion is “allowed” and encouraged to focus the energy of the “Conspiracy” people on it and divert snooping into the real hub of action elsewhere (most say Dulce).

The Air Force recently managed to withdraw 3,972 acres of public land from the surrounding desert and absorbed it into the Groom Lake area, making it prohibited to civilians and under military protection. This was in answer to the (government’s) endless battle to keep people from sitting on a ridge that was 10 miles away with telescopic lenses “spying” on the goings-on of the Area and trying to see what all the massive paranoia was about. Double Dog dares, you know….
Also, a bit bizarrely for a place where “nothing is going on”, after the New York 9-11 attack, President Bush the Second issued a statement that would exempt this installation “from any Federal, State, Interstate, Local or hazardous waste laws that might require the disclosure of calcified information concerning that operating location to unauthorized persons…information concerning activities at the operating location near Groom Lake have been properly determined to be classified and disclosure would be harmful to national security. Continued protection of this information is in the paramount interest of the United States”.

2. Blue Diamond, Nevada
Function unknown

3. Fallon Air Force Base area (the flats, near Reno)
“American City”
restricted military sites southwest of Fallon
Function: Suspected Underground UFO Base
Levels: At least seven underground levels

4. Henderson, Nevada – Naval Base
This one’s interesting. I was in Henderson on May 3-4, 1988 on one of my Death Valley/Ghost Town/Photography/Screw the World jaunts. (I love Death Valley). I remembered it vividly because I just got tired of driving and happened to turn off for the night and there I was in Henderson. It was a sleepy, dusty town. I ended up in this strange hotel that seemed like part of an old 1940s horror movie, run by the nicest people you’d want to meet. I love stuff like that. They were so surprised to see a visitor they gave me the room for a few bucks. The next morning (May 4) I left and was about two hours from town, trying to get anything on the radio but static, when I heard a news report that there had been a terrible accident in Henderson and the “marshmallow factory” had blown up, killing several people and causing a massive fire. I couldn’t believe it…I was just there! I just missed it. If I had been my usual Never In A Hurry self, I’d still be there. I saw the smoke not too long after, still driving; Henderson burning hours away.
Then I heard that what had in fact blown up was a government chemical/bomb plant. I was stunned. This sleepy little dusty town had a bomb plant? Huh? I couldn’t find a thing online about the original lie that it was a marshmallow plant. I KNOW they said that – in fact I had called home a few hours after this happened to let them know I was OK because I had called the night before and they knew I’s stayed there. I asked them, now – if they remembered me calling and this story? and they did. It made no sense at all to me. What also doesn’t make sense is how 4,500 tons of ammonium perchlorate can be in the middle of a town and now it’s surrounded by homes. In May, 1991 a huge release of chlorine occurred in Henderson – are we that expendable?

Brian sent me this:
“…. Do you know anything about a NAVAL base out in the middle of the Nevada desert? I want to say Hawthorn, or Henderson, or something like that? About half way between LV and Reno. I was up that way a couple years ago helping out with tech inspection for <a popular auto race out there> while making the drive from Vegas to Reno, out in the middle of nowhere, is this damn NAVAL base! Wow, that’s strange I think, so I go though the little town of the same name, and then I see a HUGE lake, also “in the middle of nowhere” and not really looking developed for “public use”. What really weird is that the entire lake looks as if it could be only a few feet deep, VERY slightly angled shores (no steep inclines, like a boat ramp, except from the cliffs of the mountain it sits against) and actually could almost pass for simply a rain or run off”pond” if its acreage wasn’t so big. Yet, out in the middle of this “shallow” lake (starting at the shore of the shallowest looking end), is an almost perfectly straight, dead centered, dead calm “strip” of water (you now the “still waters run deep” expression, its true). Coincidentally enough, this entire end of the lake (about 80% of the lake in fact) is posted,,,yep, you guessed it,, “OFF LIMITS” with the familiar red and white govt issue signs.
Well, the guy that was riding with me to Reno grew up in the Vegas area, and says the rumor is that the Naval base designs/builds super secret submarines, and the “trench” at the end of the lake is in fact the opening of a long underground water tunnel leading back to the base, so they can test the subs in the lake, and “supposedly” this is the deepest lake in the US, or maybe the world”.

4. Mercury, Nevada
Function unknown

5. Tonopah, Nevada
Function unknown

69: San Gabriel (mountains) On Western side of Mojave Desert
Function unknown
Notes: Heavy vibrations coming from under the forest floor which sounds like geared machinery. These vibrations and sounds are the same as heard in Kokomo, Indiana and are suspected underground building/tunneling operations.

NEW MEXICO

1. Albuquerque, New Mexico (AFB)
Function unknown
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: Carlsbad, New Mexico Los Alamos, New Mexico Possible connections to Datil, and other points.

2. Carlsbad, New Mexico
Functions: Underground Nuclear Testing
Tunnels to: Fort Stockton, Texas. Roswell

3. Cordova, New Mexico
Function unknown

4. Datil, New Mexico
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Dulce Base

5: Dulce Base, New Mexico
While some are spending their time scrutinizing Area 51 and thinking that’s so important, Dulce is said to be the crown jewel that we’re all being distracted from; The Big Tamale

Function: Alien interface, Research of mind related functions, genetic experiments, mind control training and reprograming
Levels: 7 Known -
Level 1 – garage for street maintenance
Level 2 – garage for trains, shuttles, tunnel-boring machines and disc maintenance
Level 3 - everyone is weighed, in the nude, then given a jump suit uniform. The weight of the person is put on a computer I.D. card each day. Change in over three pounds requires a physical exam and X-ray.
Level 4 - Human research in ‘paranormal’ areas – mental telepathy, mind control, hypnosis, remote viewing, astral traveling – etc. The technology is apparently here to allow them to know how to manipulate the ‘Bioplasmic Body’ Development of a laser weapon that can remotely cause burns and discomfort on it’s target. They can lower your heartbeat with Deep Sleep ‘Delta Waves,’ induce a static shock, then reprogram, Via a Brain- Computer link.
Level 5 - Alien housing . “…The room is circular for the (electro- magnetic) generator is nearly 200 feet diameter and covers the fifth and sixth levels (extreme west south wing). There (are) five entrances (plus an escape trap door on the sixth floor) on each floor. Each portal has double door. The security is severe. Armed guards patrol constantly, and in addition to weight sensitive areas there (are) hand print and eye print stations. Here, is the device that powers the transfer of atoms.
Level 6 - Level 6 is privately called ‘Nightmare Hall’. It holds the genetic labs. Experiments done on fish, seals, birds, and mice that are vastly altered from their original, forms. There are multi- armed and multi-legged humans and several cages (and vats) of humanoid bat-like creatures up to 7- feet tall. Aliens have taught the humans a lot about genetics, things both useful and dangerous. Level 7 – Humans in cages here, usually drugged or dazed, sometimes crying out for help.
Level 7 is the worst. “Row after row of 1,000’s of humans & human-mixture remains in cold storage. Here too are embryos of humanoids in various stages of development. Also, many human children’s’ remains in storage vats. Who are (were) these people?”
Below Level 7 – Unknown other levels unexplored by humans. Aliens here. Exits into a vast underground cavern series, unexplored by humans, but suspected to be a huge alien culture area.

Tunnels to: Colorado Springs, Colorado Creed, Colorado Datil, N.M. Los Alamos. Page, Arizona Sandia Base Taos, NM
Notes: The Dulce installation (upper levels) was originally constructed by the RAND corp. There are reported to be over 3000 cameras at various high-security locations. Deep sections of the Complex may connect into a natural and extensive underground cave system, which is common in most of these locations

6. Los Alamos, New Mexico
Functions: Psychotronic Research, Psychotronic Weapons
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: ALB AFB, New Mexico Dulce, New Mexico Connections to Datil,Taos

7. Sandia Base, New Mexico
Functions: Research in Electrical/magnetic Phenomena
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: Dulce Base
Notes: Related Projects are studied at Sandia Base by ‘The Jason Group’ (of 55 Scientists). They have secretly harnessed the ‘Dark Side of Technology’ and hidden the beneficial technology from the public.

8. Sunspot, NM
Function unknown

9. Taos, New Mexico
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Dulce, New Mexico; Cog, Colorado
Notes: Several other sidelines to area where Uranium is mined or processed.

10. White Sands, NM
Function: Missile testing/design
Levels: Seven known

NEW YORK
New York, New York
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Capitol Building, D.C.

OHIO
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base – Dayton, Ohio
Function: Air Force Repository. Rumored to house alien remains and also “alien” craft, stealth
technology and prototype craft

OREGON

1. Cave Junction, Oregon
Function: Suspected Underground UFO Base
Levels: At least one
Notes: Suspected location is in or near Hope Mountain. Near Applegate Lake, Oregon, just over into California. Multiple shafts, access areas to over 1500 feet depth. Built using abandoned mine with over 36 known miles of tunnels, shafts.

2. Crater Lake, Oregon
Tunnels: possible to Cave Junction

3. Klamath Falls, Oregon

4. Wimer, Oregon (Ashland Mt. area)
Function: Underground Chemical Storage
Levels: At least one

PENNSYLVANIA
Raven Rock, Pa (near Ligonier)
Function: working back up underground Pentagon – sister site of Mt. Weather
Notes: 650′ below summit, 4 entrances.

 

TEXAS
1. Calvert, Texas
Function unknown

2. Fort Hood, Texas (also reported detainment camp)
Levels: Multiple

3. Fort Stockton, Texas
Function: Unknown
Tunnels to: Carlsbad, New Mexico

UTAH
1. Dugway, Utah
Function: Chemical Storage, Radiation storage.

2. Salt Lake City Mormon Caverns
Function: Religions archives storage.
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: Delta, Colorado & Riverton, Wyoming

VIRGINIA
Mount Poney – Near Culpepper, Virginia
Function unknown

WASHINGTON
1. Mt. Rainier, Washington
Function unknown.
Levels: Multiple
Tunnels to: Unknown
Notes: A very active UFO base exists beneath Mt. Rainier. There are also said to be underground “vaults” containing
records of the ancient Lemurians.

2. Mt. St. Helens, Washington
Function: thought to be electromagnetic/ultra- and subsound research

3. Yakima Indian Reservation
Function unknown
Notes: Southeast of Tacoma Washington, on the Reservation, in an area 40 by 70 miles. Unusual sounds from underground (Toppenish Ridge). Low flying Silver Cigar shaped craft seen to disappear into the Middle fork area of Toppenish creek

Washington DC
Function: Part of massive underground relocation system to house
select government and military personnel in event of cataclysmic event
Tunnels to: New York City; Mt. Weather

WEST VIRGINIA
Greenbrier Facility, West Virginia – White Sulfer Springs, W. Va
under the Greenbriar Resort,
They don’t even hide this one, and it’s even a daily tourist “fun joke”. The Underground vault was built to meet the needs of a Congress-in-hiding – in fact the hotel is a replica of the White House. The underground area has a chamber for the Senate, a chamber for the House and a massive hall for joint sessions. Although the hotel says it gives tours of the 112,000 square area daily, the installation still stands at the ready, its operators still working under cover at the hotel. The secrecy that has surrounded the site has shielded it both from public scrutiny and official reassessment.
From an article by Ted Gup: “House Speaker Thomas Foley, one of the very few in Congress who has been briefed on the Greenbrier facility, declined to comment for this article. But former speaker Thomas P. “Tip” O’Neill says the evacuation plan always seemed “far-fetched” to him. “I never mentioned it to anybody,” O’Neill recalls. “But every time I went down to the Greenbrier — and I went there half a dozen times — I always used to look at the hill and say, ‘Well, that’s where we’re supposed to live in the event something happens, and that’s where we’re going to do business, maybe under the tennis courts.”

WYOMING
Riverton, Wyoming
Function unknown
Tunnels to: Salt Lake, Utah Denver, Colorado

An interesting story:
Sudden Valley, WA - from Sid
“Sudden Valley is a private community with it’s own security, golf course, spa, rec. facilities, etc.
We moved there in 1992. <Wife> got a job as office manager at the resort headquarters. I got close to all the security force personnel…just cause that’s what I do ;-) I had noticed that an airport was shown on the resort map right next to the road leading to Bellingham. I went past this area almost daily. All I saw was a dirt strip that looked like it had never been used. I was curious!”

“A fellow employee and woman who became a good friend of my wife told us that the CIA had come to her when she was employed at the phone company and requested all the phone records of: Santo Trafficante, Jr, who was an infamous Mafia boss. WHAT? says I. Seems he was living openly in Sudden Valley under his own name and his children going to school in Bellingham. This was at the time the CIA and FBI were seeking him desperately for questioning concerning JFKs murder. No surprise that those diligent agencies were unable to locate the fugitive.I later found out from a friend who moved to Sudden Valley at it’s inception that there were high ranking military folks, including a 4-star Ret. General and ‘many Mafia types living there incognito.'”

“I never could get any answers out of the old timers about this airport. Most told me they were unaware of it’s existance.
Well, what finally happened is that we decided to move in 1996 and we wanted to sell our classic Mercedes-Benz 280 SL before we left. Our neighbor across the street handled the sale of our home and told me that the owner of this airport that no one heard of collected classic Mercedes. He suggested that I go see him. How?, says I. Oh, theres a dirt road off the main highway that takes you to it. It’s not marked.”

 

**

View Film Footage of Actual Blasts
Building
Operation Cue (500kb)
Layer Cake
Layer Cake Design (500kb)
Castle
Operation Castle (300kb)
Cloud
Operation Castle (100kb)
Fox Hole
Camp Desert Rock (900kb)
House
Operation Cue (300kb)

****

Resources:

 

PROJECT GREEK ISLAND – The Greenbrier

GROUND ZERO | The Greenbrier: Five Star Fallout Shelter

The Secret Bunker Congress Never Used : NPR

American Experience . Race for the Superbomb . Tour – PBS

Failsafe – Xavier Durand (great photos)

6 Massive Secret Operations

Cold War Artifacts & Resources – Crile Archives

CONELRAD: All Things Atomic | The Golden Age of

Fallout Shelters: Secret Underground Bunkers and Tunnels

DEEP UNDERGROUND MILITARY BASES IN AMERICA

About the Raven Rock Mountain Complex

Raven Rock Mountain Complex – Site R Underground

Raven Rock Mountain Complex (Site R) | Public Intelligence

Fallout Shelters: Secret Underground Bunkers and Tunnels under the USA

lisaleaks:

When the day of Martial Law comes in America, the UNISF and UNMNTF troops located in Central America, in the US, and Canada will be deployed to help round up the millions of Americans whose names appear on the CIA Red List and the CIA Blue List. These troops are Chinese, Russian, German, Polish, Japanese, Ukrainian, Saudi Arabian, Pakistani, Mexican, Honduran, Salvadorean and Chilean, and many are stationed in the deep underground military bases. When that day comes in America, do not expect the Fox News Network, NBC, CBS, ABC, CNN, BBC News 24 or Reuters to give a full or accurate account of the truth. Mass detentions in camps and the underground bases, along with mass executions will occur, like they have in many other countries like Cambodia, Russia, China, Germany, Poland, Armenia, Georgia, Belorussia, Hungary and the Ukraine over the past 100 years. The best option for many Americans will be to have a safe place in a remote area where you can hide.

Originally posted on Nevada State Personnel Watch:

There’s a conspiracy about a secret underground bunkers in DIA or Denver International Airport being built by the US government as a fallout shelter in 2012.

Could Yucca Mountain in Nevada be another massive Deep Underground Military Bunker or a place to house Government officials and other important people  instead on a nuclear storage site as it sits idle?

It is a shame the US spends more on it’s military then it does on education. These two movies were filmed recently in Hawthorn NV. showing the many underground bunkers used by the army and even the NAVY???? The Navy? Why would they have a navel under water research facility way out in the desert? Here is the interesting fact, the lake near Hawthorn walker lake is dead of any life at all. Never seen a boat out on it the 9 or so times I have been past it. I…

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ASTEROIDS Act Would Establish Space Property Rights

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Asteroid_Itokawa_anatomy_ESO_525Schematic view of asteroid (25143) Itokawa. (Credit: ESO)

Asteroids are the best real estate in the Solar System

Despite their celestial age, our understanding of asteroids is still in its infancy. However, the more we learn about them, the more enticing destinations they become.

Asteroids are primordial material left over from the formation of the Solar System. They are scattered throughout it: some pass close to the Sun, and others are found out beyond the orbit of Neptune. A vast majority have been collected by Jupiter’s gravity into a belt between it and Mars – an area known as the Main Belt. As it turns out, we have been discovering thousands of asteroids that do not belong to the Main Belt, but instead pass near Earth’s orbit – nearly 9,000 to date, with almost a thousand more discovered every year.

Many of these near-Earth asteroids are easily accessible from Earth. And many contain enormous quantities of accessible resources.

An Incredible Resource

There are over 1,500 asteroids that are as easy to get to as the surface of the Moon. They are also in Earth-like orbits with small gravity fields, making them easier to approach and depart.

Asteroid resources have some unique characteristics that make them especially attractive. Unlike Earth, where heavier metals are close to the core, metals in asteroids are distributed throughout their body, making them easier to extract.

Asteroids contain valuable and useful materials like iron, nickel, water, and rare platinum group metals, often in significantly higher concentration than found in mines on Earth.

We are only just beginning to realize the incredible potential of asteroids. The first encounter of a spacecraft with an asteroid was in 1991, as the Galileo spacecraft flew by the 951 Gaspra asteroid on its way to Jupiter. Our knowledge of these celestial neighbors has been revolutionized by a small set of US and international missions carried out since that time. With each visit or fly-by, the science on asteroids has been rewritten.

Space Property Rights Bill In US Congress Could Facilitate Commercial Lunar Development

TrillionsAsteroid0714

Proving that there is some vision in Congress after all, U.S. Representatives Bill Posey (R-FL) and Derek Kilmer (D-WA) have introduced introduced the American Space Technology for Exploring Resource Opportunities in Deep Space (ASTEROIDS) Act of 2014, which “establishes and protects property rights for commercial space exploration and utilization of asteroid resources.”

Now, if they can only get a budget passed by the end of the fiscal year, Congress could demonstrate vision and basic competence at governance, something it hasn’t achieved in many years. (It’s looking like another continuing resolution for NASA.)

But, I digress.

You will note that Kilmer is from Washington state, which is home to….wait for it….Planetary Resources, the asteroid mining company backed by all those billionaires. Coincidence? I think not.

A press release from Posey follows.

Asteroids are excellent potential sources of highly valuable resources and minerals,” said Rep. Bill Posey, a Member of the House Science, Space and Technology Committee. “Our knowledge of asteroids – their number, location, and composition – has been increasing at a tremendous rate and space technology has advanced to the point where the private sector is now able to begin planning such expeditions. Our legislation will help promote private exploration and protect commercial rights as these endeavors move forward and I thank Representative Kilmer for working with me to help advance this industry.”

“We may be many years away from successfully mining an asteroid, but the research to turn this from science fiction into reality is being done today,” said Rep. Derek Kilmer, a member of the House Science, Space and Technology Committee. “Businesses in Washington state and elsewhere are investing in this opportunity, but in order to grow and create more jobs they need greater certainty. That’s why I’m excited to introduce this bill with Representative Posey so we can help the United States access new supplies of critical rare metals while serving as a launch pad for a growing industry.”

Currently, rare minerals used to manufacture a wide range of products are found in a small number of countries. This has left the United States dependent on foreign nations for these resources. The limited supply and high demand for these materials, alongside major advances in space technology and a deeper understanding of asteroids, has led a number of private sector investors to begin developing plans to identify and secure high-value minerals found on asteroids and transport them for use here on Earth.

Some rare minerals that could be found within asteroids include: platinum group metals such as platinum, osmium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium in addition to nickel, iron and cobalt.

Posey and Kilmer’s bill would:

  •  Clarify that resources mined from an asteroid are the property of the entity that obtained them.
  • Ensure U.S. companies can conduct their operation without harmful interference
  • Direct the President to facilitate commercial development of asteroid resources.

- See more at: http://www.parabolicarc.com/2014/07/11/asteroids-act-establish-space-property-rights/#sthash.p6iLiY2e.dpuf

Schematic view of asteroid (25143) Itokawa. (Credit: ESO) – See more at: http://www.parabolicarc.com/2014/07/11/asteroids-act-establish-space-property-rights/#sthash.p6iLiY2e.dpufProving that there is some vision in Congress after all, U.S. Representatives Bill Posey (R-FL) and Derek Kilmer (D-WA) have introduced introduced the American Space Technology for Exploring Resource Opportunities in Deep Space (ASTEROIDS) Act of 2014, which “establishes and protects property rights for commercial space exploration and utilization of asteroid resources.”

Proving that there is some vision in Congress after all, U.S. Representatives Bill Posey (R-FL) and Derek Kilmer (D-WA) have introduced introduced the American Space Technology for Exploring Resource Opportunities in Deep Space (ASTEROIDS) Act of 2014, which “establishes and protects property rights for commercial space exploration and utilization of asteroid resources.”

Now, if they can only get a budget passed by the end of the fiscal year, Congress could demonstrate vision and basic competence at governance, something it hasn’t achieved in many years. (It’s looking like another continuing resolution for NASA.)

But, I digress.
You will note that Kilmer is from Washington state, which is home to….wait for it…. Planetary Resources, the asteroid mining company backed by all those billionaires. Coincidence? I think not.

Economie-EspaceA press release from Posey follows:
Asteroids are excellent potential sources of highly valuable resources and minerals,” said Rep. Bill Posey, a Member of the House Science, Space and Technology Committee. “Our knowledge of asteroids – their number, location, and composition – has been increasing at a tremendous rate and space technology has advanced to the point where the private sector is now able to begin planning such expeditions. Our legislation will help promote private exploration and protect commercial rights as these endeavors move forward and I thank Representative Kilmer for working with me to help advance this industry.”
“We may be many years away from successfully mining an asteroid, but the research to turn this from science fiction into reality is being done today,” said Rep. Derek Kilmer, a member of the House Science, Space and Technology Committee. “Businesses in Washington state and elsewhere are investing in this opportunity, but in order to grow and create more jobs they need greater certainty. That’s why I’m excited to introduce this bill with Representative Posey so we can help the United States access new supplies of critical rare metals while serving as a launch pad for a growing industry.”

Currently, rare minerals used to manufacture a wide range of products are found in a small number of countries. This has left the United States dependent on foreign nations for these resources. The limited supply and high demand for these materials, alongside major advances in space technology and a deeper understanding of asteroids, has led a number of private sector investors to begin developing plans to identify and secure high-value minerals found on asteroids and transport them for use here on Earth.

Some rare minerals that could be found within asteroids include: platinum group metals such as platinum, osmium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium in addition to nickel, iron and cobalt.
Posey and Kilmer’s bill would:
• Clarify that resources mined from an asteroid are the property of the entity that obtained them.
• Ensure U.S. companies can conduct their operation without harmful interference
• Direct the President to facilitate commercial development of asteroid resources.

Planetary Resources will mine Asteroids for Water and Platinum

It’s not a joke: James Cameron, Eric Schmidt, Larry Page and some investors want to mine asteroids through a company called Planetary Resources. This team of wealthy billionaires wants to extract gold and platinum from these asteroids.

The Trillion Dollar Market: Fuel in Space from Asteroids

Have you ever wondered why the space economy hasn’t grown with Moore’s Law like high-tech industries on Earth?

Well in space one resource above all others is extraordinarily expensive and without cheap access to it, growth is limited…FUEL.  The catalyst for rapid expansion into every frontier in history has been access to cheap, local resources.  And in space, access to rocket fuel is currently neither cheap, nor local.

But on asteroids, abundant quantities of hydrogen and oxygen can be used to create rocket fuel, the same stuff used by the Space Shuttle. This allows companies like Vivisat fuel spacetugs that will be used to keep satellites in their Geostationary slots, or fuel up your spacecraft before zooming off to Mars. The possibilities are endless!

Learn about the possibilities of this booming new space economy in our new video about the Market for Fuel in Space…

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Resources:

Space colonization

(ASTEROIDS) Act of 2014Space Politics

Bipartisan Legislation Promotes Commercial Space Ventures

Read the proposed US ASTEROIDS Act to green-light

H.R.5063 – 113th Congress (2013-2014): ASTEROIDS Act

US proposed law: ASTEROIDS Act of 2014 – Science Discussi

Project SHAD: Biological and Chemical Warfare

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Project SHAD

About Project 112 and Project SHAD

From 1962 to 1974, the Department of Defense’s Deseret Test Center in Fort Douglas, Utah planned and conducted a series of biological and chemical warfare vulnerability tests. These tests are known as Project 112 and Project SHAD and consisted of both land-based and sea-based tests at different locations.
At VA’s request in 2000, the Department of Defense began declassifying and sharing information with VA about possible exposure to warfare agents during the tests and people involved.

Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense)

VA-LAB-RATS1

Tests by land and by sea:

Tests by land and by sea

Land-based tests were conducted to learn about how chemical and biological agents react under a variety of environmental and climatic conditions.
Ship-based tests, known as Project SHAD (an acronym for Shipboard Hazard and Defense), were conducted to identify the vulnerability of U.S. warships to chemical and biological attacks and procedures to respond to such attacks.

The Department of Defense (DoD) used a wide range of agents in the tests, including the biological warfare agents Coxiella Burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B, and the nerve agents sarin, VX, tabun and soman.
Go to Project 112/SHAD Fact Sheets from the Department of Defense to learn more about the tests and agents used.

staphylococcal
U.S. Servicemember participation in tests
Approximately 6,000 U.S. Servicemembers were involved in conducting chemical tests to defend against biological and chemical weapons threats. Most of these participants served in the Navy and Army, and some served in the Marine Corps and Air Force. Most were involved in Project SHAD.

Project 112/SHAD Fact Sheets

VA is committed to reaching every living Veteran involved in Project 112/Project SHAD, based on rosters developed with DoD, and informing them of VA services available to them. When DoD provides VA the names of test participants, VA sends letters to these Veterans to inform them about the tests and what to do if they have related health concerns.

VA-LAB-RATS2VA-LAB-RATS3

Project 112/SHAD Fact Sheets

 Project SHAD, an acronym for Shipboard Hazard and Defense, was part of a larger effort called Project 112, which was conducted during the 1960s. Project SHAD encompassed tests designed to identify U.S. warships’ vulnerabilities to attacks with chemical or biological warfare agents and to develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining a war-fighting capability.

FS = Fact Sheet Released     PR = Personnel Roster Provided     * = New/Updated
Investigation Status Key:   Investigating Test Status      In Progress      Complete

# Test Name Date Location Agent/
Simulant
Investigation Status Information at VA
    FY 63
1 63-1 Eager Belle I [SHAD] Jan – Mar 1963 Pacific Ocean BG Fact Sheet Released 1/31/2002 FS, PR
  Eager Belle II [SHAD] Feb, Mar, Jun 1963 Pacific Ocean, west of Oahu, Hawaii BG Fact Sheet Revised Released 12/02/2003 FS, PR
2 63-2 Autumn Gold [SHAD] May 3-31, 1963 Pacific Ocean near the island of Oahu, Hawaii BG Fact Sheet Revised Released 12/02/2003 FS, PR
3 63-3 Whistle Down Dec 1962 – Feb 1963 Ft. Greely, AK GB, VX Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
4 63-4 Big Jack A Feb – Mar 1963 Ft. Sherman, Panama Canal Zone BG, FP Fact Sheet Released 10/31/2002 FS
  Big Jack B Feb – Mar 1963 Ft. Sherman, Panama Canal Zone TOF Fact Sheet Released 10/31/2002 FS
    FY 64
5 64-1 Errand Boy [SHAD] Sep 1963 Oahu, HI BG Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS, PR
6 64-2 Flower Drum I [SHAD] Feb – Apr 1964 Aug – Sep 1964 Pacific Ocean GB, SO2, MAA Fact Sheet Released 5/23/2002 FS, PR
  Flower Drum II [SHAD] Nov – Dec 1964 Pacific Ocean VX, P32, Bis Fact Sheet Released 5/23/2002 FS
7 64-3 Little Mo [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
8 64-4 [Red Beva] Shady Grove [SHAD] Phase A, May 1964
Phase B, Feb – Mar 15, 1965
Phase C, Oct 5 – 14, 1965
Phase D, Mar 22 – Apr 3, 1965
Phase A: Pacific Ocean near the island of Oahu, Hawaii
Phases B and D: Pacific Ocean near Johnston Island
Phase C: Eglin Air Force Base, Florida
BG, OU, UL Fact Sheet Revised Released 12/02/2003 FS, PR
9 64-5 Night Train Nov 1963 – Jan 1964 Ft. Greely, AK BG, FP Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
10 64-6 Yellow Leaf Feb 1964, Apr – May 1966 Ft. Sherman, Panama Canal Zone, Island of Hawaii BG, Tiara Fact Sheet Released 10/31/2002 FS, PR
11 64-7 Big Thunder NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
12 64-8 Tall Timber Apr – Jun 1966 Island of Hawaii BZ Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
13 64-9 Big Piney NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
14 64-10 [65-18] Black Label NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
15 64-11 [65-19] Laurel Grove NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
    FY 65
16 65-1 Copper Head [SHAD] Jan – Feb 1965 Atlantic Ocean off Newfoundland, Canada BG, FP, Betapropiolactone Fact Sheet Revised Released 12/02/2003 FS, PR
17 65-2 Chain Saw NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
18 65-3 West Side I Jan 8 – Feb 21, 1965 Tanana Valley of Central Alaska near Ft. Greely BG, FP Fact Sheet Revised Released 12/02/2003 FS, PR
19 65-4 Magic Sword [SHAD] May 1965 Baker Island mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
20 65-5 Iron Clad [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
21 65-6 Big Tom [SHAD] May – Jun 1965 Pacific Ocean, off Oahu, HI & surrounding water & airspace BG, FP Updated Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS, PR
22 65-7 Great Sole [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
23 65-8 Lone Wolf [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
24 65-9 Silver Star NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
25 65-10 Little Egypt NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
26 65-11 [Bear River] Sun Down Feb, Apr 1966 Ft. Greely, AK GB, MAA, Tiara Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
27 65-12 Devil Hole I Summer 1965 Ft. Greely, AK GB, FP Fac Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
28 65-13 High Low [SHAD] Jan – Feb 1965 Pacific Ocean off San Diego, CA MAA Corrected Fact Sheet Released 12/31/2002 FS, PR
29 65-14 Elk Hunt I Jul – Aug 1964 Ft. Greely, AK VX Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
  Elk Hunt II Jun – Jul 1965 Oct – Dec 1965 Ft. Greely, AK & Edgewood Arsenal, MD, & Canada VX Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
30 65-15 Little Corporal NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
31 65-16 Pine Ridge May – Jun 1966 Island of Hawaii GB, BZ Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
32 65-17 Fearless Johnny [SHAD] Aug – Sep 1965 Pacific Ocean southwest of Oahu, HI VX, Diethylphthlate Fact Sheet Released 5/23/2002 FS, PR
33 65-18 [64-10] Black Label NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
34 65-19 [64-11] Laurel Grove NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
    FY 66
35 66-1 Devil Hole II Jul – Aug 1966 Ft. Greely, AK VX Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
36 66-2 Red Oak I Apr – May 1967 Island of Hawaii, Ft. Sherman, Panama Canal Zone GB Fact Sheet Released 10/31/2002 FS, PR
37 66-3 Swamp Oak I Mar – Apr 1966 Ft. Greely, AK GB Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
38 66-4 Green Mist Mar – Apr 1967 Island of Hawaii GB, MAA Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
39 66-5 Purple Sage [SHAD] Jan – Feb 1966 Pacific Ocean off San Diego, CA MAA Fact Sheet Released 5/23/2002 FS, PR
40 66-6 Scarlet Sage [SHAD] Feb – Mar 1966 Pacific Ocean off San Diego, CA BG Fact Sheet Released 1/31/2002 FS, PR
41 66-7 Clay Pigeon I NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
42 66-8 West Side II Jan – Mar 1965 Southwestern Canada BG, FP Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
43 66-9 Magic Sword II [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
44 66-10 Pin Point Jun and Aug 1966 Tropical jungle environment in Panama CS Fact Sheet Revised Released 12/02/2003 FS
45 66-11 Ebony Sun [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
46 66-12 [Bald Eagle I] Bold Captain [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
47 66-13 Half Note [SHAD] Aug – Sep 1966 Pacific Ocean, off Hawaii BG, E.coli, FP SM, calcaflour Updated Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS, PR
48 66-14 Sandy Point [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
    FY 67
49 67-1 [68-15] Red Oak II NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
50 67-2 Dew Point Jun – Jul 1967 Ft. Greely, AK GB Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
51 67-3 [68-11] [69-13] Tiny Doll NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
52 67-4 Blue Note [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
53 67-5 Work Horse [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
54 67-6 Blue Tango Jan – Feb 1967 Hawaii BG, E.coli, SM Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS, PR
55 67-7 [Coincidence] Red Cloud Nov 1966 – Feb 1967 Ft. Greely, AK BG, E.coli, SM, TT, ZZ Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
56 67-8 [Autobiography] Watch Dog Summer 1967 Ft. Greely, AK BG, E.coli, SM, TT, ZZ Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
57 67-9 [Key Fruit] Gray Fox [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
58 67-10 [Meddled] Night Fire [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
59 67-11 [Expunge] Slow Waltz [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
60 67-12 [68-72] [69-70] [Expulsion] Sharp Nail [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
61 67-13 Steel Point NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
    FY 68
62 68-10 [68-2] Sharp Ravine NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
63 68-11 [67-3] [69-13] Tiny Doll NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
64 68-12 [68-1] Narrow Trail NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
65 68-13 [68-4] Rapid Tan Jul – Aug 1967 May – Jun 1968 Aug – Sep 1968 Phase I & III – Porton Down, England, Phase II – Ralston, Canada GA, GB, GD, VX Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
66 68-14 [68-3] Channel Crab NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
67 68-15 [67-1] Red Oak II NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
68 68-30 [68-5] [69-74] Prairie Carpet NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
69 68-31 [68-6] [69-33] Exit Line [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
70 68-33 [68-7] Wicked Slice NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
71 68-50 [68-11] Speckled Start [SHAD] Sep – Oct 1968 Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands BG, PG2, uranine dye Fact Sheet Released 5/23/2002 FS, PR
72 68-51 [68-9] Strange Fruit NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
73 68-52 Cliff Rose Sep 27, 1967 – Jan 18, 1968 Ft Stewart Georgia and Panama Canal Zone CS Fact Sheet Released 12/9/2002 FS
74 68-53 Apr – Dec 1969 DPG, UT CS Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
75 68-70 [68-12] Shining Pond NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
76 68-71 [68-13] Folded Arrow [SHAD] Apr -May 1968 Oahu, HI and surrounding waters BG Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS, PR
77 68-72 [67-12] [69-70] Sharp Nail [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
78 68-73 [68-8] [69-73] Leaning Shoe NA NA NA Test Deferred/Renumbered NA
79 [68-10] Maple Board NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
    FY 69
80 69-10 [SHAD] May 1969 Vieques, PR TOF Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
81 69-12 Spring 1969 Edgewood Arsenal, MD GB, GD, GA, VX Test Suspended
Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002
FS
82 69-13 [67-3] [68-11] Tiny Doll NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
83 69-14 Jul – Nov 1971 DPG, UT DEHP Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
84 69-15 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
85 69-16   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
86 69-30   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
87 69-31 [SHAD] Aug – Sep 1968 Pacific Ocean off San Diego, CA BG, MAA Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS, PR
88 69-32 [SHAD] Apr – Jun 1969 Pacific Ocean, southwest of Hawaii BG, E.coli, SM, Calcaflour Fact Sheet Released 5/23/2002 FS, PR
89 69-33 [68-6] [68-31] Exit Line [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
90 69-34   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
91 69-35   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
92 69-36 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
93 69-37   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
94 69-70 [67-12] [68-72] Sharp Nail [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
95 69-71 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
96 69-72 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
97 69-73 [68-73] [68-8] Leaning Shoe NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
98 69-74 [68-5] [68-30] Prairie Carpet NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
99 69-75 Oct – Dec 1968 Yeehaw Junction, FL TX Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
    FY 70
100 70-A   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
101 70-B   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
102 70-C [SHAD] Oct 1972, Feb – Mar 1973 Pacific Ocean, from San Diego, CA to Babloa, Panama NA Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS
103 70-D NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
104 70-10 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
105 70-11 Ph I, Subtest 3 Jun 1972 – Nov 1973 Dugway PG, UT Bis, TOP, FP Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS
  70-11 Ph I, Subtest 4 May 1974 Dugway PG, UT Bis Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS
106 70-12   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
107 70-30 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
108 70-31   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
109 70-50 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
110 70-70 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
111 70-71 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
112 70-72   NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
113 70-73 Jul – Dec 1970 DPG, UT BG, FP Fact Sheet Released 10/09/2002 FS
114 70-74 Aug 1972 – Jan 1973 Dugway PG, UT BG, SM Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS
    FY 71
115 71-10 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
116 71-11 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
117 71-12 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
118 71-13 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
119 71-30 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
120 71-31 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
121 71-32 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
122 71-33 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
123 71-34 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
124 71-35 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
125 71-70 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
126 71-75 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
    FY 72
127 72-30 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
128 72-70 [SHAD] NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
    FY 73
129 73-10 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
130 73-11 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
131 73-12 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA
132 73-30 Jan – Feb 1973 Dugway PG, UT BG, SM, P Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS
    FY 74
133 74-10 Ph I Sep – Oct 1973 Dugway PG, UT DMMP, Bis, Trichloropropane Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS
  74-10 Ph II Apr – May 1974 Dugway PG, UT DMMP Fact Sheet Released 6/30/2003 FS
134 74-030 NA NA NA Test Cancelled NA

 

FS = Fact Sheet Released     PR = Personnel Roster Provided     * = New/Updated
Investigation Status Key:   Investigating Test Status      In Progress      Complete

 

Publications & Reports on Military Exposures

VA has developed newsletters, reports, and other materials for Veterans, the public and health care providers on the following topics:

- See more at: http://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/publications/#sthash.M8yvaRLy.dpuf

Publications & Reports on Military Exposures

VA has developed newsletters, reports, and other materials for Veterans, the public and health care providers on the following topics:

Health Registry Evaluation

Environmental Health Registry Programs for Veterans

The Environmental Health Registry Programs brochure (495 KB, PDF) provides an overview of five VA health registry programs that track the health of Veterans exposed to environmental hazards during military service: Ionizing Radiation, Agent Orange, Gulf War, Depleted Uranium, and Toxic Embedded Fragments.

 

Agent Orange

Cover of Agent Orange Review Winter 2012

Read newsletters, reports, and more on Agent Orange and other herbicides used during the Vietnam conflict.

Newsletter: Agent Orange Review Winter 2012

View all Agent Orange materials.

 

Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses

Cover of Gulf War Newsletter March 2014

Read newsletters, reports, and more on Gulf War Veterans’ illnesses.

Newsletter: Gulf War Update March 2014

View all Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses materials.

 

Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom

Cover of December 2010 Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom Review

Read newsletters and clinical guides on hazardous exposures during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF).

Newsletter: OEF/OIF Review December 2010 (355 KB, PDF)

View all OEF/OIF exposures publications.

 

Radiation

Ionizing Radiation Review cover page

Read newsletters, brochures and a clinical education guide on radiation, related VA benefits, and more.

Newsletter: Ionizing Radiation Review March 2012

View all radiation materials.

 

Project 112/Project SHAD

U.S. warship aircraft carrier

View Project 112/Project SHAD materials, including fact sheets and a clinical education guide.

 

Depleted Uranium

U.S. tank in Iraq

View fact sheets on depleted uranium, its health effects, and the Depleted Uranium Follow-Up Program.

 

Pocket Guides for Clinicians

These guides help health care providers care for Veterans with exposure concerns, malaria, and mild traumatic brain injury.

Publications & Reports on Military Exposures

VA has developed newsletters, reports, and other materials for Veterans, the public and health care providers on the following topics:

Health Registry Evaluation

Environmental Health Registry Programs for Veterans

The Environmental Health Registry Programs brochure (495 KB, PDF) provides an overview of five VA health registry programs that track the health of Veterans exposed to environmental hazards during military service: Ionizing Radiation, Agent Orange, Gulf War, Depleted Uranium, and Toxic Embedded Fragments.

 

Agent Orange

Cover of Agent Orange Review Winter 2012

Read newsletters, reports, and more on Agent Orange and other herbicides used during the Vietnam conflict.

Newsletter: Agent Orange Review Winter 2012

View all Agent Orange materials.

 

Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses

Cover of Gulf War Newsletter March 2014

Read newsletters, reports, and more on Gulf War Veterans’ illnesses.

Newsletter: Gulf War Update March 2014

View all Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses materials.

 

Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom

Cover of December 2010 Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom Review

Read newsletters and clinical guides on hazardous exposures during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF).

Newsletter: OEF/OIF Review December 2010 (355 KB, PDF)

View all OEF/OIF exposures publications.

 

Radiation

Ionizing Radiation Review cover page

Read newsletters, brochures and a clinical education guide on radiation, related VA benefits, and more.

Newsletter: Ionizing Radiation Review March 2012

View all radiation materials.

 

Project 112/Project SHAD

U.S. warship aircraft carrier

View Project 112/Project SHAD materials, including fact sheets and a clinical education guide.

 

Depleted Uranium

U.S. tank in Iraq

View fact sheets on depleted uranium, its health effects, and the Depleted Uranium Follow-Up Program.

 

Pocket Guides for Clinicians

These guides help health care providers care for Veterans with exposure concerns, malaria, and mild traumatic brain injury.

Publications & Reports on Military Exposures

VA has developed newsletters, reports, and other materials for Veterans, the public and health care providers on the following topics:

- See more at: http://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/publications/#sthash.M8yvaRLy.dpuf

If you have not received a letter from VA informing you of your participation in Project 112/Project SHAD and need help verifying your possible participation:
• Call VA at 1-800-749-8387
• Call DoD at 1-800-497-6261

 

 

 

Resources:

Project SHAD

DOD RELEASES FIVE PROJECT 112 SHAD FACT SHEETS

An Overview of Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense

Long-Term Health Effects of Participation in Project SHAD

Project 112/SHAD Fact Sheets – Medical Countermeasures

Project 112/SHAD REPORT – Vietnam Veterans of America

Project 112/SHADVeterans Benefits Administration – US

Publications & Reports on Military ExposuresPublic Health

Dugway tests weigh on former soldier’s mind | Deseret News

The Chemical-Biological Warfare Exposures Site – Medical

LAB RATS – SHAD – American Patriot Friends Network

About Project 112 and Project SHAD

From 1962 to 1974, the Department of Defense’s Deseret Test Center in Fort Douglas, Utah planned and conducted a series of biological and chemical warfare vulnerability tests. These tests are known as Project 112 and Project SHAD and consisted of both land-based and sea-based tests at different locations.

At VA’s request in 2000, the Department of Defense began declassifying and sharing information with VA about possible exposure to warfare agents during the tests and people involved.

Tests by land and by sea

Land-based tests were conducted to learn about how chemical and biological agents react under a variety of environmental and climatic conditions.

Ship-based tests, known as Project SHAD (an acronym for Shipboard Hazard and Defense), were conducted to identify the vulnerability of U.S. warships to chemical and biological attacks and procedures to respond to such attacks.

The Department of Defense (DoD) used a wide range of agents in the tests, including the biological warfare agents Coxiella Burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B, and the nerve agents sarin, VX, tabun and soman.

Go to Project 112/SHAD Fact Sheets from the Department of Defense to learn more about the tests and agents used.

U.S. Servicemember participation in tests

Approximately 6,000 U.S. Servicemembers were involved in conducting chemical tests to defend against biological and chemical weapons threats. Most of these participants served in the Navy and Army, and some served in the Marine Corps and Air Force. Most were involved in Project SHAD. Go to Project 112/SHAD Fact Sheets from the Department of Defense to learn more about the tests, including what units or ships were involved.

VA is committed to reaching every living Veteran involved in Project 112/Project SHAD, based on rosters developed with DoD, and informing them of VA services available to them. When DoD provides VA the names of test participants, VA sends letters to these Veterans to inform them about the tests and what to do if they have related health concerns.

If you have not received a letter from VA informing you of your participation in Project 112/Project SHAD and need help verifying your possible participation:

  • Call VA at 1-800-749-8387
  • Call DoD at 1-800-497-6261

- See more at: http://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/shad/basics.asp#sthash.vGmZYHUX.dpuf

“Protecting” the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment

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DHS

Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment

An immigration officer’s questioning of an individual illustrates how an encounter which “may appear” to be a seizure is in fact not. Merely questioning an individual about his identity, regardless of whether he is aware he can leave the officer or refuse to cooperate by not answering, is not a seizure.

Therefore, such questioning need not be predicated on reasonable suspicion that the individual is an alien. Nonetheless, if “the circumstances are so intimidating as to demonstrate that a reasonable person would have believed he was not free to leave if he had not responded,” then the encounter may be deemed a seizure. When the interview becomes a seizure, either through a formal arrest or when the circumstances are such that a reasonable person would understand he could not leave, the officer must, at a minimum, have “a reasonable suspicion, based on articulable facts, that the person being questioned is, or is attempting to be, engaged in an offense against the United States or is an alien illegally in the United States.”

authoritah

Reasonableness Determining

Reasonableness Determining whether a government action is “reasonable” requires balancing the governmental interest justifying the intrusion against a person’s legitimate expectation of privacy. When the government interest fails to justify its intrusion of a legitimate expectation of privacy, a violation of the Fourth Amendment occurs. This violation may result in any evidence derived from the unlawful search to be suppressed and excluded from a judicial proceeding. However, this “exclusionary rule” does not generally apply in proceedings involving the removal of aliens from the United States.

Federal-Appeals-Court-Limits-Warrantless-Border-Confiscation-and-Searches-of-Mobile-DevicesThe Definition of “Border” Warrantless searches are per se “unreasonable” under the Fourth Amendment, unless an established exception applies. The border search is a well-recognized and long established exception to the Fourth Amendment’s probable cause and warrant requirements.

In general, the border is the point where entry into the United States is first made by land from the neighboring countries of Mexico or Canada, at the place where a ship docks in the United States after having been to a foreign port, and at any airport in the country where international flights first land. Authorities at these locations may search a person entering or leaving the country, an individual’s automobile, baggage, or goods, and materials imported to and exported from the country.

Authorized by the First Congress, the border search exception has a history older than the Fourth Amendment and derives from Congress’s inherent authority to regulate commerce with foreign nations and to enforce immigration laws. The Fourth Amendment does not require warrants or probable cause for most stops and searches at the border because the power to control who or what comes within a nation’s borders is an inherent attribute of national sovereignty.

Although border searches may generally be conducted without a warrant or probable cause, they must still be reasonable. Federal courts have determined that border searches usually fall into two categories—routine and non-routine, the distinction generally turning on the intrusiveness of the search. Routine border searches are reasonable simply by virtue of the fact that they occur at the border and consist of only a limited intrusion, while non-routine searches generally require reasonable suspicion and vary in technique and intrusiveness. It should be noted, however, that the Supreme Court has arguably suggested that the routine/non-routine analysis may no longer be appropriate for searches of vehicles and personal property.

BorderPatrol

Functional Equivalent of the Border:

The border search exception extends to those searches conducted at the “functional equivalent” of the border. The “functional equivalent” of a border is generally the first practical detention point after a border crossing or the final port-of-entry. Places such as international airports within the country and ports within the country’s territorial waters or stations at the intersection of two or more roads extending from the border exemplify such functional equivalents.

This doctrine addresses the problem posed by the impossibility of stopping an individual for inspection who is in mid-transit when crossing the physical border. By permitting searches at the functional equivalent of the border, the doctrine permits a search to be effected at the first practicable location, namely the port-of-entry. The reasoning is that the port-of-entry is, much like a border checkpoint, the place where an individual first enters the country, and thus a search for contraband at a port-of-entry is as effective as a search at the border.
A search at the border’s functional equivalent is constitutionally valid when:

(1) a reasonable certainty exists that the person or thing crossed the border;

(2) a reasonable certainty exists that there was no change in the object of the search since it crossed the border; and

(3) the search was conducted as soon as practicable after the border crossing. In general, when applying this test, courts have given the “border” a geographically flexible reading because people can enter the
country at points other than the actual border.

mexican-border-patrol-690x388

Extended Border Search

The border search exception may also allow warrantless searches beyond the border or its functional equivalent. Under the “extended border search” doctrine, government officials may conduct a warrantless search beyond the border or its functional equivalent if

(1) the government officials have a reasonable certainty that a border was crossed or there exists a “high degree of probability” that a border was crossed;

(2) they also have reasonable certainty that no change in
the object of the search has occurred between the time of the border crossing and the search; and

(3) they have “reasonable suspicion” that criminal activity was occurring. This three-part test ensures that a significant temporal nexus still exists between the search and the suspect’s border crossing.

The extended border search doctrine has gained wide acceptance among the federal courts because they deem that it “strikes a sensible balance” between the “legitimate privacy interests” of the individual and the societal interests in the enforcement of border security laws.

The Distinction between the Functional Equivalent of a Border and the Extended Border Search Doctrines:

Although a search at the border’s functional equivalent and an extended border search require similar elements, the extended border search entails a potentially greater intrusion on a legitimate expectation of privacy. Thus, an extended border search always requires a showing of “reasonable suspicion” of criminal activity, while a search at the functional equivalent of the border may not require any degree of suspicion whatsoever.

Another difference is that an extended border search takes place after the first point in time when an individual might have been stopped within the country. For example, in United States v. Teng Yang, the Seventh Circuit upheld an extended border search that occurred at an international airport but after the defendant had already undergone an initial inspection at the designated U.S. border inspection site. The court determined that “it is the enforcement of the customs laws combined with the mandate of protecting the border of the United States that permits the extension of the search rights of border authorities to allow non-routine searches in areas near our nation’s borders.”

Types of Searches and Seizures at the Border:

Courts have historically analyzed border searches based on whether they are “routine” or “nonroutine.” However, this type of division may no longer be appropriate for vehicular searches. And at least one court appears to have extended this analysis to searches of electronic storage devices and other containers.

The following sections examine how federal courts generally analyze border searches of persons, vehicles, and electronic storage devices.

search and seizure

Searches and Seizures of People:

In order to regulate the collection of duties and to prevent the introduction of illegal aliens and contraband into this country, Congress has granted the authority to conduct routine searches of persons and their personal belongings at the border without reasonable suspicion, probable cause, or a warrant. A routine border search is a search that does not pose a “serious invasion of privacy” or offend the average traveler. For example, a routine border search may consist of limited searches for contraband or weapons through a pat-down; the removal of outer garments such as jackets, hats, or shoes, the emptying of pockets, wallets, or purses; the use of a drug-sniffing dog; the examination of outbound materials; and the inspection of luggage.

It has long been established that border crossers’ reasonable expectation of privacy is lower at the border because they generally expect border guards to search persons and property for contraband. Because this is common knowledge, border crossers are “put on notice” when approaching a border that a search may be imminent, and thus their privacy is “less invaded by [border] searches” when they occur. Thus, routine searches “do not violate the Fourth Amendment” simply because they occur at the border. Moreover, courts consider routine border searches to be permissible because they are administered to a class of people (international travelers) and are not used to target individuals.

There is no established test that determines whether a particular search procedure is routine. However, the degree of intrusiveness or invasiveness associated with the particular technique is especially indicative of whether a search is routine. The First Circuit, for example, compiled a nonexhaustive list of six factors to be considered:

(1) whether the search required the suspect to
disrobe or expose any intimate body parts;

(2) whether physical contact was made with the
suspect during the search;

(3) whether force was used;

(4) whether the type of search exposed the suspect to pain or danger; the overall manner in which the search was conducted; and whether the suspect’s reasonable expectations of privacy, if any, were abrogated by the search.

illegal immigration

Non-Routine Searches:

Once a search of a person’s body goes beyond a limited intrusion, a court may determine that a non-routine search has occurred. Non-routine border searches may include prolonged detentions, strip searches, body cavity searches, and some X-ray examinations. Destructive searches of
property can also qualify as non-routine.

At the very least, it appears courts require a government official to have a “reasonable suspicions of illegal activity to conduct a non-routine border search. The reasonable suspicion standard generally requires an officer at the border to have “a particularized and objective basis for suspecting the particular person” of wrongdoing. For example, in United States v. Forbicetta, the court found reasonable suspicion to exist where Customs officials acted on the following objective facts: the suspect

(1) arrived from Bogota, Colombia,

(2) was traveling alone,

(3) had only one suitcase and no items requiring Customs inspection,

(4) was young, clean-looking, and attractive, and  was wearing a loose-fitting dress.These factors taken together matched the “smuggling profile” for narcotic carriers in that area, and thus, the court concluded there was a
sufficient basis to conduct the search.

The Supreme Court has not enumerated the factors that should be considered when determining whether a border search is routine or non-routine. This task has generally been left to lower federal courts. However, in United States v. Montoya De Hernandez, the Supreme Court concluded that one such standard, a “clear indication” of suspicion (i.e., a suggestion that is free from doubt), was not required by the Fourth Amendment to justify a prolonged detention in an airport. The Court determined that the use of the term “clear indication” in its past jurisprudence was only meant to indicate the necessity for particularized suspicion, “rather than as enunciating a third Fourth Amendment threshold between ‘reasonable suspicion’ and ‘probable cause.’”

Fourth AmendmentFederal courts now view the Montoya de Hernandez reasoning as both a warning against using suspicion standards other than reasonable suspicion for non-routine border searches and a specific disavowal of the use of the “clear indication” standard when analyzing a border search.

Although some courts had previously required a “clear indication” to justify especially intrusive border searches other than prolonged detentions, courts generally construe the disavowal of this standard in Montoya de Hernandez to apply to other invasive border searches. “Reasonable suspicion” is the standard used to justify non-routine searches.

Prolonged Detentions:

Prolonged detentions may be conducted in order to verify or dispel an agent’s suspicion that a traveler has committed wrongdoing. In Montoya de Hernandez, someone from Bogota, Columbia, suspected of smuggling drugs in her alimentary canal, refused to consent to an X-ray examination. In an attempt to verify or dispel their suspicions that she was engaged in criminal activity, Customs officers detained Ms. Montoya de Hernandez for over 16 hours and told her she could not leave until she eliminated the contents of her alimentary canal into a wastebasket.

The Court determined “that the detention of a traveler at the border, beyond the scope of a routine Customs search and inspection, is justified at its inception if Customs agents, considering all the facts surrounding the traveler and her trip, reasonably suspect that the traveler is smuggling contraband in her alimentary canal.”

The Court concluded that it was reasonable to detain Ms. Montoya de Hernandez for the period of time necessary to verify or dispel the suspicion of the agents in these circumstances.1 Courts have reasoned that “an otherwise permissible border detention does not run afoul of the Fourth Amendment simply because a detainee’s intestinal fortitude leads to an unexpectedly long period of detention.” However, the Fifth Circuit in United States v. Adekunle concluded that the government must, within a reasonable time (generally within 48 hours), seek a judicial determination that reasonable suspicion exists to detain a suspect for an extended period of time.

eighth circuitThere appear to be no “hard-and-fast time limits” that automatically transform what would otherwise be a routine search into a non-routine search, nor render a non-routine search conducted under the reasonable suspicion standard unconstitutional. Rather, courts consider “whether the detention of [the traveler] was reasonably related in scope to the circumstances which justified it initially.” In order to provide perspective, the 16-hour detention in Montoya de Hernandez was considered a non-routine search (justifiable by reasonable suspicions), while a one-hour vehicular search did not require reasonable suspicion. The Second Circuit has characterized four- to six-hour-long detentions of individuals suspected of having terrorist ties as routine.

strip_search_0405

Strip Searches:

A strip search involves the removal of all or part of a suspect’s clothing in order to effect a search. Because of the perceived offensiveness of the procedure due to the embarrassment it may inflict on the individual, reviewing courts generally require reasonable suspicion that the person is concealing contraband under his clothing before such a search is justified. Often, in the course of a routine search, reasonable suspicion may arise to justify a subsequent strip search. For instance, in United States v. Flores, upon discovering 600 small undeclared emerald stones in the defendant’s pockets during a routine search, Customs agents conducted a strip search and discovered an envelope of narcotics.90 The court held that the prior discovery of the undeclared emeralds was sufficient to heighten suspicion to the level necessary to conduct the strip search.

Body Cavity Searches

Body Cavity Searches

Narcotics and other contraband have often been smuggled in the body cavities of travelers, and searches into such cavities have become more commonplace. Body cavity searches may include inspections of the vagina or rectum, or the use of emetics. Because of the extreme medical risks internal drug smuggling poses to the smuggler, courts have determined that body cavity searches and extraction of the drugs do not require the advance procurement of a search warrant from a magistrate. Nevertheless, a border official must have reasonable suspicion that an individual is attempting to smuggle contraband inside his body for a court to uphold a warrantless body cavity search.

Texas-Cavity-SearchAdditionally, the manner in which the body cavity search is conducted must also be reasonable in light of the circumstances. Generally, conduct that “shocks the conscience” is inherently unreasonable. Such conduct has included use of a stomach pump and could potentially include medical procedures performed by nonmedical personnel

Lawsuit: Illegal Beaner Woman Faced Illegal Body Cavity Search, Observed Bowel Movement by Feds

What started as a random screening by U.S. Customs and Border Protection agents quickly became an invasive, illegal body cavity search on a New Mexico woman, a federal lawsuit charges.

Papers filed in the U.S. District Court in El Paso say the 54-year-old woman — a U.S. citizen — was strip-searched by agents in Dec. 2012, KOAT reports. The unnamed woman was taken in handcuffs to a nearby hospital, where doctors subjected her to illegal body cavity probes and an observed bowel movement, according to the lawsuit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union.

NMNo drugs were found on the woman, but the hospital sent her a $5,000 bill anyway, according to the ACLU. On top of the observed bowel movement, the woman was forced to undergo an X-ray, an exam of her rectum and vagina, and then a CT scan.

“In the lawsuit, we are bringing it to challenge those searches,” Senior ACLU Staff Attorney told KPBS. “Securing the border has become an excuse for outright abandonment of Constitutional principles that protect our privacy and our dignity. And enough is enough.”

The lawsuit seeks an unspecified amount in compensatory and punitive damages. Roger Maier, a spokesman for the customs agency, said he wouldn’t comment on pending litigation

Arizona v. United States

 

 

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