You can read some passages of the thesis (above) and article here: The Manhattan-Rochester Coalition, Research on the Health Effects of Radioactive Materials And Tests
The use of human subjects in research is a controversial topic. It faces many of the same issues that are present in using animals in research although the issues are even more complicated when humans are brought into the picture.
Does the cost of one human life justify the benefit to society as a whole? What rights do clinical patients have if they voluntarily submit themselves to research? To answer these questions and explore the ethical issues surrounding human subjects in clinical research it is most helpful to examine cases were there was an ethical failure and the guidelines that have come about because of these failures.
AMERICANS HAVE BEEN GUINEA PIGS IN DEADLY EXPERIMENTS FOR AT LEAST 60 YEARS AND COUNTING!
NO, IT’S NOT “JUST” THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF U.S. TROOPS USED AS LAB RATS, IT’S THE MAN ON THE STREET, IT’S NEWBORN BABIES, IT’S YOUNG CHILDREN, THE TERMINALLY ILL, THE ELDERLY, IT’S YOU AND ME!
IT’S BEEN ONGOING SINCE THE EARLY 1940s, AND IT’S STILL GOING ON TODAY…IT WILL GO ON FOREVER UNLESS WE FIND SOME WAY TO STOP IT.
WE WILL LOOK AT ABSOLUTE ADMISSIONS BY THE MILITARY, BY FEDERAL AGENCIES, REPORTS FROM U.S. CONGRESSMEN, JOURNALISTS WHO UNCOVERED THESE THINGS, MEN AND WOMEN WHO ARE LIVING THIS NIGHTMARE TODAY, NOW.
IT’S BEEN EXCUSED BY THE VERY ONES WHO SHOULD PROSECUTE THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEATHS AND OFTEN FATAL ILLNESSES AND DISEASE THAT HAVE PLAGUED THREE GENERATIONS OF TRUSTING CITIZENS.
PEOPLE ARE DYING EVERY DAY WITH NO HOPE FOR JUSTICE, NO HOPE THAT THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR ILLNESSES THEIR IMPENDING DEATHS WILL EVER BE BROUGHT TO TRIAL FOR MURDER.
WHAT IF IT WAS YOU, YOUR CHILD, YOUR SPOUSE, YOUR PARENT?
WHAT IF YOU ARE ONE OF THE COUNTLESS MILLIONS EXPOSED TO LETHAL RADIATION DOSES, TO BIOCHEMICALS BEING TESTED FOR WAR, TO POISONS NEWLY DEVELOPED?
WHAT IF YOU ARE IN THE GROWING NUMBER OF HUMAN GUINEA PIGS USED BY OUR OWN GOVERNMENT, WITHOUT OUR KNOWLEDGE, CONSENT, AND WITHOUT DISCLOSURE OF ANY SORT, TO “TEST” NEW WAYS TO KILL THE ENEMY?
DO YOU LIVE NEAR THE DISCLOSED AREAS OF HIGHEST INTENTIONAL CONTAMINATION?
CORPUS CHRISTIE AND HOUSTON , TEXAS, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE, AREAS OF COLORADO, ARKANSAS, CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, UTAH, NEW MEXICO, ARIZONA, MINNESOTA, OHIO, NEW YORK, MISSISSIPPI, HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA, WASHINGTON STATE, ILLINOIS, OREGON …THE LIST IS SO LONG, TOO LONG…ALMOST EVERY STATE HAS BEEN VICTIM TO SUCH “EXPERIMENTS”, AS HAVE SEVERAL FOREIGN NATIONS!
IF YOU HAVE BEEN IN THE MILITARY, SERVED IN THE PEACE CORPS, TAKEN PART IN CLINICAL TRIALS OR STUDIES, ARE AMERICAN INDIAN, OR HAVE EVER BEEN INCARCERATED, YOU ALMOST DEFINITELY HAVE BEEN AMONG THE “TOP LAB RATS” FOR THE AMERICAN MILITARY/GOVERNMENT. COUNT ON IT!
SINCE OCTOBER, 2012, A NEW GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS HAS TAKEN INTEREST IN OBTAINING JUSTICE FOR ALL OF US WHO HAVE BEEN A PART OF THIS 60+ YEARS OF “EXPERIMENTS”.
IF YOU CARE, READ ON…
PREVIOUSLY “CLASSIFIED/MARKED SECRET” PHOTOS SHOWING HOW THEY ACCOMPLISHED SOME OF THESE “EXPERIMENTS”….SPRAYING FROM ROOFTOPS… SPRAYING FROM ATOP STATION WAGONS.
In 1995 the Energy Department admitted to over 430 radiation experiments conducted by the Atomic Energy Commission between the years 1944 and 1974. Over 16,000 CIVILIANS were INTENTIONALLY radiated, some of whom did not know the health risks, did not give consent, OR WERE NEVER INFORMED OF THE “TESTS”.
These experiments were “designed to help atomic scientists understand the human hazards of nuclear war and radiation fallout”.
THESE EXPERIMENTS KILLED PEOPLE, INCLUDING NEWBORNS AND CHILDREN!
Because the entire nuclear arms buildup was classified secret, these experiments were all stamped secret and allowed to take place under the banner of protecting “national security.”
In the nuclear arms race, government doctors and scientists brainwashed the public into believing low dose radiation was not harmful. Some officials even tried to convince people that “a little radiation is good for you.” Totally ignored was the knowledge that the radiation from nuclear fallout could lead to an increased risk of cancer, heart disease, neurological disorders, immune system disease, reproductive abnormalities, sterility, birth defects, and genetic mutations which could be passed on from generation to generation.
The full extent of this radiation damage to the American public during the Cold War years will never be known. AND IT IS NOT OVER YET!
A secret Atomic Energy Commission document, dated 17 April 1947, reveals that physicians WERE aware of these radiation hazards EVEN AT THAT EARLY DATE, but simply IGNORED THEM. Under the title “Medical Experiments in Humans,” the memorandum reads: “It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse effect on public opinion or result in legal suits. Documents covering such field work should be classified ‘Secret’.”
Public outcry over the discovery of government experiments on human subjects led to numerous congressional investigations and hearings, including the Church Committee, Rockefeller Commission, and Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, amongst others.
MANY “downwinders“ (THOSE LIVING DOWNWIND FROM RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT OR RADIATION SOURCES) testified that the Public Health Service officials told them that their ‘neurosis’ about the fallout was the only thing that would give them cancer, particularly if they were female. Women with severe radiation illness, hair loss, and badly burned skin, were clinically diagnosed in hospitals as “neurotic.” Other severely ill women were diagnosed with “housewife syndrome.” When an investigation asked a Department of Energy spokesperson about the AEC/DOE’s practice of waiting until the wind blew towards Utah before testing nuclear bombs or venting radiation in order to avoid contaminating Las Vegas or Los Angeles, the unabashed and unconcerned official actually said on tape, “Those people in Utah don’t give a shit about radiation.”
REALLY? DID “THOSE PEOPLE” SIGN A RELEASE? DID THEY EVEN KNOW WHAT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN TO THEM?
IF “THOSE PEOPLE” HAD KNOWN WHAT THE DoE GUY KNEW, I’D WAGER THEY WOULD HAVE GIVEN A REALLY BIG “SH_T”.
In addition to these radiation experiments, workers who mined Uranium for the AEC in the Four Corners area of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico, were exposed to radioactive dust during the 1940s up to the 1960s. Although AEC scientists and epidemiologists knew the dust in these poorly ventilated mines was contaminated with deadly radon gas which could easily cause death from lung cancer, this lifesaving information was never passed on to the miners, many of whom were Native Americans. As a result, many miners died prematurely of cancer of the lung.
Stewart Udall, an Arizona Congressman and lawyer who also served as Secretary of the Interior during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, represented the miners and their families in a class action lawsuit against the federal government for radiation injuries.
When the miners’ case finally came to trial in 1983, the federal court in Arizona dismissed the case by declaring the US government was immune from lawsuit.
Only recently, with the forced release of Top Secret documents, have details been revealed about the unethical and inhumane radiation studies conducted during the Cold War years from 1944 to 1974. The initial story broke in November 1993 in a series of articles in the Albuquerque Tribune which identified the names of 18 Americans secretly injected with plutonium, a key ingredient of the atomic bomb and one of the most toxic substances known to man. Some, but not all, of the patients were terminally ill. This horrifying story by journalist Eileen Welsome (who later won a Pulitzer Prize) unleashed a storm of nationwide protest prompting Department of Energy Secretary Hazel O’Leary to order the release of secret files and documents pertaining to these Cold War experiments.
The extremely dangerous plutonium experiment was performed under the auspices of the government’s Manhattan Project, which brought together a revered group of distinguished scientists to develop and test the atom bomb. The purpose of these secret experiments was to establish occupational standards for workers who would be producing plutonium and other radioactive ingredients for the nuclear energy industry.
Some of the classified government experiments included:
~Exposing more than 100 Alaskan INUIT villagers to radioactive iodine during the 1960s.
~Exposing about 800 pregnant women in the late 1940s to radioactive iron to determine the effect on the fetus.
~Injecting 7 newborns (six were Black) with radioactive iodine.
~Exposing the testicles of more than 100 prisoners to cancer-causing doses of radiation. This experimentation continued into the early 1970s.
~Exposing almost 200 cancer patients to FATALLY high levels of radiation from cesium and cobalt.
~Administering radioactive material to psychiatric patients in San Francisco and to prisoners in San Quentin.
~Administering massive doses of full body radiation to cancer patients hospitalized at the General Hospital in Cincinnati, Baylor College in Houston, Memorial Sloan-Kettering in New York City, and the US Naval Hospital in Bethesda, during the 1950s and 1960s. The experiment provided data to the military concerning how a nuclear attack might affect its troops.
[MORE THAT 200,000 U.S. TROOPS WERE ALSO USED AS GUINEA PIGS FOR RADIATION STUDIES DURING THIS TIME.]
~Exposing 29 patients, some with rheumatoid arthritis, to total body irradiation (100-300 rad dose) to obtain data for the military. This was conducted at the University of California Hospital in San Francisco.
THESE ARE THE FEW WE HAVE SEEN DECLASSIFIED…WHO KNOWS HOW MANY OTHERS WILL NEVER BE RELEASED FOR PUBLIC SCRUTINY?
THREE GENERATIONS TREATED LIKE GUINEA PIGS BY THE RADIATION-EXPERIMENTING MILITARY!
“American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades
of Radiation Experiments on U.S. Citizens”
PREPARED BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY CONSERVATION
AND POWER OF THE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, NOVEMBER 1986
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON 1986
FULL PDF FILE AVAILABLE HERE: American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation
Washington, DC, October 24, 1986.
[TO THE] Honorable John D. Dingell Chairman, Committee on Energy and Commerce, Rayburn House
Office Building, Washington, DC
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am forwarding to you, for the
Committee’s use, a report prepared by the staff of the Energy
Conservation and Power Subcommittee titled, “American Nuclear
Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments On U.S.
Citizens.” This report describes material contained in Department
of Energy documents on radiation experiments using human
A review of these documents reveals the frequent and
systematic use of human subjects as guinea pigs for radiation
experiments. Some of these experiments were conducted in the
1940’s and 1950’s, and others were performed during the
supposedly more enlightened 1960’s and 1970’s. The report describes in detail 31 experiments during which about 695 persons were exposed to radiation which provided little or no medical benefit to the subjects. The report notes that it seems appropriate to urge the Department of Energy to make every practicable effort to identify the persons who served as experimental subjects, to examine the long-term histories of subjects or an increased incidence of radiation associated diseases, and to compensate these unfortunate victims for damages.
This report is the result of an ongoing Subcommittee examination of the health and safety policies of the Department of Energy. The previous Subcommittee Chairman, Mr. Ottinger, requested from the Department documentation on experiments involving human test subjects and radiation, which were funded by DOE or its predecessor agencies. During the 99th Congress, the Subcommittee initiated an intensive review of the documents, and requested further information on specified experiments. This report is the result of that intensive review.
It should be noted that this report was prepared by the Subcommittee staff for discussion purposes and may not represent the views of all Committee members. I believe the Committee and others will find this report to be extremely useful in examining issues of radiation health and safety and victims’ compensation.
EDWARD J. MARKEY, Chairman
THE REPORT CONTINUES…
Documents provided by the Department of Energy reveal the
frequent and systematic use of human subjects as guinea pigs for
radiation experiments. Some experiments were conducted in the 1940s
at the dawn of the nuclear age, and might be attributed to an
ignorance of the long term effects of radiation exposure or to the
atomic hubris that accompanied the making of the first nuclear
bombs. But other experiments were conducted during the supposedly
more enlightened 1960s and 1970s. In either event such experiments
cannot be excused.
These experiments were conducted under the sponsorship of the
Manhattan Projects the Atomic Energy Commission, or the Energy
Research and Development Administration, all predecessor agencies
of the Department of Energy. These experiments spanned roughly
The chief objectives of these experiments were to
directly measure the biological effects of radioactive material;
to measure doses from injected, ingested, or inhaled radioactive
substances; or to measure the time it took radioactive substances
to pass through the human body American citizens thus became
nuclear calibration devices.
In some cases, subjects willingly participated in experiments
but they became willing guinea pigs nonetheless. In some cases, the
human subjects were captive audiences or populations that
experimenters might frighteningly have considered “expendable”: the
elderly, prisoners, hospital patients suffering from terminal
diseases or who might not have retained their full faculties for
informed consent. For some human subjects, informed consent was not
obtained or there is no evidence that informed consent was granted.
For a number of these same subjects, the government covered up
the nature of the experiments and deceived the families of deceased
victims as to what had transpired. In many experiments, subjects received
doses that approached or even exceed presently recognized limits for occupational radiation exposure. Doses were as great as 93 times the body burden recognized at the time the experiments were conducted.
During 1945 to 1947, as part of the Manhattan Project, 18
patients who were diagnosed as having diseases which gave them
expected survivals of less than 10 years were injected with
plutonium, to measure the quantity retained by the human body. These
experiments were carried out at the Manhattan District Hospital at
Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New
York; the University of Chicago; and the University of California.
San Francisco. Despite the original diagnoses, seven of these
patients lived longer than 10 years, and five lived longer than 20
years.Internal investigations by the Atomic Energy Commission
found that informed consent was not granted in the initial
experiments, since even the word “plutonium” was classified during
World War II; and living patients were not informed that they had
been injected with plutonium-until 1974.
From 1961 to 1965 at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 20 subjects aged 63 to 83, were injected or fed radium
or thorium to estimate internal doses and to measure passage of
these substances through their bodies. Many of these subjects came
from the nearby Age Center of New England, a research facility
established to investigate the process of aging and the needs of
the elderly. These experiments thus represent a perversion of the
Center’s original purpose, since feeding the subjects radium and
thorium did not benefit them as individuals or the elderly
population as a whole.
During the 1960s, at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, 57
normal adults were fed microscopic spheres containing radioactive
uranium and manganese. These experiments were designed to determine
how fast such spheres would pass through the human body after
ingestion. It was believed that particles of this size could be
produced by the atmospheric reentry and burn-up of rockets propelled
by nuclear reactors, or of radioactive power supplies.
During 1946 and 1947, at the University of Rochester, six
patients with good kidney function were inject with uranium salts
to determine the concentration which would produce renal injury.
One patient was diagnosed as being in a “hallucinatory state,”
another was considered suffering from “emotional maladjustment,”
and a third, admitted to the hospital for a fifth time, was
described as follows: “As he had no home, he agreed willingly to
enter the metabolic unit for special studies.”
From 1963 to 1971, 67 inmates at Oregon State Prison and 64 in
mates at the Washington State Prison received x-rays to their
testes to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on human
fertility and testicular function. These experiments were conducted
by the Pacific Northwest Research Foundation and the University of
Washington. Subjects had to agree to receive vasectomies after
completion of the experiments. The Energy Research and
Development Administration planned to begin medical follow up of the
irradiated prisoners, but these plans were dropped in 1976 at the
request of the U.S. Attorney in Portland after several irradiated
inmates filed suits against state and federal governments.
From 1953 to 1957, at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston,
approximately 12 terminal brain tumor patients were injected with
uranium to determine the dose at which kidney damage began to
occur. Most of the patients were described as comatose or in a
From 1963 to 1965, at the Atomic Energy Commission National
Reactor Testing Station in Idaho, radioactive iodine was purposely
released on seven separate occasions. In one of these experiments,
seven human subjects drank milk from cows which had grazed on
iodine-contaminated land. This experiment was designed to measure
the passage of iodine through the food chain into the thyroids of
human subjects. In a second experiment, three human subjects were
placed on the pasture during iodine release, and seven subjects
were placed on the pasture in a third experiment. In addition,
“several” individuals were contaminated during yet another
experiment when vials of radioactive iodine accidentally broke.
Cows grazed on contaminated land and their milk was counted in four
of the experiments; in the remaining three, radiation measurements
were made only in the pasture.
During May 1945, at the Clinton Laboratory, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee, two groups of 10 subjects were exposed to beta rays, to
determine the dose that would begin to cause reddening of the skin.
During 1951 and 1952, at least 14 human subjects were exposed
to tritium in air, by immersion of body parts in water, or by
drinking. These experiments were designed to measure the retention
or excretion of tritium by the human body. The experiments were
carried out by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, or the General
Electric Company in Richland, Washington.
During 1956, the US Air Force sent manned planes through
radiation clouds from atomic bomb tests at Eniwetok and Bikini
Atolls in the Pacific to measure radiation doses in the clouds and
to the crew.
During the early 1950s. Foster D. Snell, a consulting firm,
carried out experiments for the U.S. Army by placing “synthetic”
radioactive soil on the hands of about 118 subjects, and measuring
the ability of different cleaning agents to remove the
During the late 1950s, at Columbia University and Montefiore
Hospital, the Bronx, 12 terminal cancer patients were injected with
radioactive calcium and strontium. This experiment was designed to
compare the distribution of these two substances among body tissues
From 1961 to 1963, at the University of Chicago and Argonne
National Laboratory, 102 human subjects were fed real fallout
from the Nevada Test Site; simulated fallout particles that
contained strontium, barium, or cesium; or solutions of strontium
and cesium. This experiment was designed to measure human
absorption and retention of these radioactive substances.
In 1967 at the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation and the
Battelle Memorial Institute, both at Richland, Washington,
radioactive promethium was administered to 14 subjects by injection
or drinking. These experiments were designed to measure the passage
of this substance through the body and the ability of a drug (chelatirig agent) to increase the removal of promethium.
During the early 1960s. at the Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies, 54 hospital patients with normal intestinal tracts were fed lanthanum-140. This experiment was designed to measure the rate at which this radioactive substance passed through the body.
During 1963, at the Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, Washington, five subjects were injected with radioactive phosphorus. In addition, five subjects were fed fish from the Columbia River which contained radioactive phosphorus, produced and discharged into the river by reactors at the Atomic Energy Commission‘s Hanford Site. These experiments were designed to estimate the doses to humans eating contaminated fish. These experiments were designed to estimate the doses to humans eating contaminated fish.
If there is one thing the government can do for these
experimental victims and their families, even at this late date, it
is to conduct long term medical follow up of populations exposed to
radioactive material. That practice has been adopted by the Defense
Depart-ment through its Nuclear Test Personnel Review, a registry
for military personnel exposed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear
tests. The primary objectives of the Review are to identify the appproximately 200.000 Defense Department personnel involved in
suchtests. to determine their exposures, to identify incidence of
death or illness, and to assist veterans in claims for compensation.
If this effort can be carried out for military personnel acting in
the line of duty, surely a similar effort should be possible for
the far smaller number of peaceful atomic soldiers used as human
subjects in radiation experiments.
1. It seems appropriate to urge the Department of Energy to
make every practicable effort to identify the persons who served as
subjects for the experiments described below, to examine the long
term histories of subjects for an increased incidence of radiation-
associated diseases, and to compensate these human guinea pigs for
damages they have suffered.
These victims face severe obstacles to compensation under
current law, embodied by the Federal Tort Claims Act. The
Department of Energy should therefore be encouraged to work with
the Subcommittee to develop legislation that provides adequate
2. Human experiments of this nature must never be repeated.
Many of these experiments would not be allowed under current
[OR UNDER THE GENEVA CONVENTION, THE NUREMBERG CODE, OR IN THE NAME OF HUMAN DECENCY, EVEN BACK THEN? IS HAVING NO “LEGAL” ETHICS GUIDELINES JUSTIFICATION FOR KNOWINGLY KILLING AMERICAN CITIZENS?
WHAT IF A FOREIGN POWER HAD DUMPED THESE LEVELS OF RADIATION ON AMERICANS?
NO, THEY KNEW IT WAS WRONG, AND DID IT ANYWAY!]
In addition to the Green Run test [at the Hanford, Washington super-site, which blew into neighboring Oregon and polluted the Columbia and Hood River systems], we documented 12 other planned radioactive releases that occurred during post World War II nuclear weapons-related tests conducted at three U.S. sites: Oak Ridge,Tennessee, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Dugway, Utah.
Eight of the releases were conducted as part of the U.S. radiation warfare
programs. Four others were related to atmospheric-radiation-
tracking research. Like the Green Run test, none of these releases
were accidental, and none resulted from routine production
operations at nuclear sites.
Field testing of a radiation warfare device continued through at least 1952.
STATEMENT BY SENATOR John Glenn RE;
SECRET RADIATION EXPERIMENTS
JANUARY 6, 1994
We know that radiation testing – – PRESUMABLY with informed consent – – continues within the government. But do we know, with 100 percent certainty, that testing without consent does not continue to this days somewhere deep in the bowels of the federal government?
As Chairman of the Governmental Affairs Committee, I have
uncovered horror story after horror story of government contractors
running wild with little or no supervision from an agency. At
times, I’ve felt like the contractor was running an agency rather
than the other way around.
We need to know from the Administration that they are doing
everything possible to assure that no improper testing – – whether
through government sponsored labs, contractors or elsewhere
continues. No other answer is acceptable.
Let me make myself clear that I am talking about more than
radiation testing. I am calling for a government-wide review of
all testing programs – from drug tests at FDA to military tests
at DOD – to determine if any improper experiments on humans
persist to this day.
If anyone is still conducting experiments outside government
regulations, and I hope this is not happening, I have one question:
though you may think the tests are safe, would you
offer your own children to be used as subjects?>>
THEN WE FIND A DISTURBING “EXPERIMENT” THAT HAPPENED IN ST. LOUIS…
The stated purpose of relentlessly spraying the inhabitants of Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis, Missouri with radioactive toxins morning, noon and night was so that the military could study its effects of their lungs. However, no follow-up study was ever done.
Pruitt-Igoe low-income housing complex housed about 10,000 people, and 70% of those residents were innocent children. Children are extremely susceptible to the fatal effects of early radiation exposure, even “minimal” exposure.
How many of those 7,000 children died from the daily doses of cadmium and whatever other compound was in that spray?
Nobody knows, nobody in government or the military cares, obviously.
In 1972, after years of crime, poverty and decline, the government demolished the Pruitt-Igoe housing project, which incidentally, was designed by Minoru Yamasaki, the same architect as the World Trade Center towers. I wonder if they carted all of that debris off and sold it abroad like they did with the Twin Towers…erase it…get rid of the evidence…scrape things nice and clean…
Despite the extent of the experiment, local politicians were NOT notified about the content of the testing. The people of St Louis were told that the Army was testing smoke screens to protect cities from a Russian attack.
‘It was pretty shocking. The level of duplicity and secrecy. Clearly they went to great lengths to deceive people,’ Professor Martino-Taylor said.
In her findings, one of the compounds that was sprayed upon the public was called ‘FP2266’, according to the army’s documents, and was manufactured by US Radium. The compound, also known as Radium 226, was the same one that killed and sickened many of the US Radium workers.
The Army has admitted that it added a fluorescent substance to the ‘harmless’ compound, but whether or not the additive was radioactive remains classified.
IN ALL MY RESEARCH FOR THIS, I FOUND ONLY 3 “MAINSTREAM MEDIA” MENTIONS OF IT. IT WAS REPORTED BY THOSE THREE AND THEN DROPPED.
Besides The Mail (and not counting ROLLING STONE’s fine article), Huff Post and surprisingly CBS carried reports: Secret Cold War Tests In St. Louis Raise Concerns http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/03/secret-cold-war-tests_n_1937613.html
Doris Spates was a baby when her father died inexplicably in 1955. She has watched four siblings die of cancer, and she survived cervical cancer.
After learning that the Army conducted secret chemical testing in her impoverished St. Louis neighborhood at the height of the Cold War, she wonders if her own government is to blame.
In the mid-1950s, and again a decade later, the Army used motorized blowers atop a low-income housing high-rise, at schools and from the backs of station wagons to send a potentially dangerous compound into the already-hazy air in predominantly black areas of St. Louis.
Local officials were told at the time that the government was testing a smoke screen that could shield St. Louis from aerial observation in case the Russians attacked.
But in 1994, the government said the tests were part of a biological weapons program and St. Louis was chosen because it bore some resemblance to Russian cities that the U.S. might attack. The material being sprayed was zinc cadmium sulfide, a fine fluorescent powder.
Spates, now 57 and retired, was born in 1955, delivered inside her family’s apartment on the top floor of the since-demolished Pruitt-Igoe housing development in north St. Louis. Her family didn’t know that on the roof, the Army was intentionally spewing hundreds of pounds of zinc cadmium sulfide into the air.
Three months after her birth, her father died. Four of her 11 siblings succumbed to cancer at relatively young ages.
“I’m wondering if it got into our system,” Spates said. “When I heard about the testing, I thought, `Oh my God. If they did that, there’s no telling what else they’re hiding.”‘
Mary Helen Brindell wonders, too. Now 68, her family lived in a working-class mixed-race neighborhood where spraying occurred.
The Army has admitted only to using blowers to spread the chemical, but Brindell recalled a summer day playing baseball with other kids in the street when a squadron of green Military planes sprayed radioactive particulates. She went inside, washed it off her face and arms, then went back out to play.
Over the years, Brindell has battled four types of cancer — breast, thyroid, skin and uterine.
“I feel betrayed,” said Brindell, who, by the way, is white. “How could they do this? We pointed our fingers during the Holocaust, and we do something like this?”
[SHE MUST HAVE NEVER READ STANNARD’S “AMERICAN HOLOCAUST”…HOW 100 MILLION INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, 95% OF THEIR POPULATION, WERE DELETED FROM “AMERICAN SOIL” IN A BIT LESS THAN 400 YEARS.]
Professor Martino-Taylor pointed out in her dissertation that the U.S. Government’s later claim put up in defense of their unethical stealth testing policies, i.e. that an ethics policy was not in place at the time of the spraying, does not hold water.
Martino-Taylor points out that the historical post World War II trials of Nazi war criminals should have been precedent enough, setting enough “ethics policy” to establish that SECRET horrific governmental experimentation on its own people is unacceptable in any place at any time.
WHAT LED Dr. Lisa Martino–Taylor TO RESEARCH THIS TIME FRAME, THIS INCIDENT?
Martino-Taylor became involved years ago when a colleague who grew up in the targeted area wondered if the testing was the cause of her cancer. That same day, a second colleague confided to Martino-Taylor that she, too, lived in the test area and had cancer.
Martino-Taylor decided to research the testing for her doctoral thesis at the University of Missouri. She believes the St. Louis study was linked to the Manhattan Atomic Bomb Project and a small group of scientists from that project who were developing radiological weapons. A congressional study in 1993 confirmed radiological testing in Tennessee and parts of the West during the Cold War.
[SOME EXPERIMENTS IN THE WEST LED TO LAWSUITS, TO DISCLOSURE, BUT LITTLE WAS DONE TO CORRECT ANY OF IT. FAMILIES LOST MEMBERS, LIVESTOCK, HOMES, BUT IT WAS “ALL IN THE NAME OF SCIENCE”, RIGHT? AND ALL IN THE NAME OF FINDING WAYS TO QUIETLY DESTROY AMERICA’S FOREIGN ENEMIES…AND THOUSANDS TO PERHAPS MILLIONS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS WHILE THEY WERE AT IT!]
The incidence of cancer later on was more evident among residents who had lived in the low-income units area , and that is what spiked Professor Martino-Taylor’s interest. Through her research, she uncovered documents that she believes prove the chemical mixture sprayed on unsuspecting residents containing cadmium sulfide was laced with radioactive particles.
Even it was “just cadmium sulfide”, high doses of cadmium over long periods of exposure cause bone and kidney problems AND LUNG CANCER.
The senate committee in 1997 recommended that the Army conduct follow-up studies “to determine whether inhaled zinc cadmium sulfide breaks down into toxic cadmium compounds, which can be absorbed into the blood to produce toxicity in the lungs and other organs.”
But it isn’t clear if follow-up studies were ever performed. Martino-Taylor said she has gotten no answer from the Army and her research has turned up NO additional studies. Foster, the Army spokesman, declined comment.
Martino-Taylor said a follow-up health study should be performed in St. Louis, but it must involve direct input from people who lived in the targeted areas.
“Their voices have not been heard,” Martino-Taylor said.
Now that details have emerged of the chemical testing, a recent lawsuit filed in St. Louis City Court says that the agriculture giant Monsanto and others conspired with the military to secretly poison residents of St. Louis with toxic chemicals.
The plaintiff, Benjamin Phillips Sr., claims defendants Monsanto, Parsons Government Services and SRI International participated in a study beginning in 1953 that lasted into the 1960s. Phillips claims the study, known as the “Involuntary Chemical Study on PI Residents”, was conducted around the Pruitt-Igoe housing complex in St. Louis.
Phillips, who lived at Pruitt-Igoe at the time of the experiment, claims the chemicals caused emotional and psychological trauma and harm as well as unspecified personal injury. Phillips is seeking actual and punitive damages for public nuisance, liability, intentional infliction of emotional distress and battery.
If radioactive materials were NOT sprayed on unwitting Americans, the Army would simply release the documents. Since they REFUSE to do so, it is apparent that those deadly experiments at the expense of those in St. Louis, mostly children, WERE A REALITY, WERE POSSIBLY FATAL, WERE DONE WITHOUT CARING WHAT HAPPENED NEXT.
HOW MANY OTHER NEIGHBORHOODS, CITIES, STATES, REGIONS HAVE ENDURED THESE SECRET, SILENT EXPERIMENTS?
This should serve to alert all in this country that those in power have only contempt for the general population. WE ARE LAB RATS. WE ARE EXPENDABLE….ESPECIALLY THOSE THE POWER BEHIND THE ‘THRONE’ CONSIDERS “USELESS EATERS”, OR “LEECHES OF RESOURCES”.
This should also alert all to the fact that the government and its agents of force would not hesitate to maim, kill, or imprison the citizenry if given orders to do so. To believe otherwise is to play a fool’s game!
US military secretly sprayed radioactive particles in St. Louis and Texas
They doused these cities in the 1950s and ‘60s.
“The study was secretive for a reason. They didn’t have volunteers stepping up and saying yeah, I’ll breathe zinc cadmium sulfide with radioactive particles,” Dr. Martino-Taylor told KSDK.
Instead of using curious citizens as test-subjects, the Army resorted to waging a secretive radioactive war on its own impoverished townspeople: according to the material Martino-Taylor has collected, the military launched no fewer than 16 tests in only the year 1953 that involved 35 separate releases of zinc cadmium sulfide in St. Louis. The neighborhoods affected, the professor found, were described at the time as “a densely populated slum district” that held around 10,000 low income residents, mostly children.
“There’s an awful lot of evidence that there were radiological components to the study.” She says that a powder form of zinc cadmium sulfide was mixed with fluorescent particles so that dispersal patterns could be traced among unknowing test-subjects, and that a company called US Radium — previously put before a judge for radioactively contaminating its workers — has been linked to the scandal.
“US radium had this reputation where they had been found legally liable for producing a radioactive powdered paint that killed many young women who painted fluorescent watch tiles,” she says.
Regardless of what her future research reveals, she says, “This was a violation of all medical ethics, all international codes, and the military’s own policy at that time.”
Local lawmakers terrified of Martino-Taylor’s analysis asked the Army to come forth and explain the actual merits of the mysterious spray program that has long been acknowledged, but not necessarily with the greatest of accuracy.
“The idea that thousands of Missourians were unwillingly exposed to harmful materials in order to determine their health effects is absolutely shocking. It should come as no surprise that these individuals and their families are demanding answers of government officials,” State Senator Roy Blunt (R) tells the Associated Press.
State Sen. Claire McCaskill, a Democrat, has also asked Army Secretary John McHugh for more information in a letter sent this week.
“The Senate and House had investigations back in the 1990s but nothing ever came of it,” Martino-Taylor says. “Nobody has ever talked to the people who were exposed.”
MORE OF THE SAME, AGAIN IN MISSOURI!
May 10, 2013
An underground Landfill Fire near tons of nuclear waste raises serious health and safety concerns – so why isn’t the government doing more to help?
There’s a fire burning in Bridgeton, Missouri. It’s invisible to area residents, buried deep beneath the ground in a North St. Louis County landfill. But the smoldering waste is an unavoidable presence in town, giving off a putrid odor that clouds the air miles away – an overwhelming stench described by one area woman as “rotten eggs mixed with skunk and fertilizer.” Residents report smelling it at K-12 school buses, a TGI Fridays and even the operating room of a local hospital. “It smells like dead bodies,” observes another local.
On a Saturday morning in March, one mile south of the landfill, several Bridgeton residents have gathered at a small home in a blue-collar subdivision called Spanish Village. Concerned citizens Karen Nickel and Dawn Chapman are here to answer questions posed by four of their neighbors. “How will I ever sell my house?” “Am I going to end up with cancer 20 years down the road?”
In February, the landfill’s owner, Republic Services, sent glossy fliers to residents within stink radius claiming the noxious odor posed no safety risk. But official reports say otherwise. Temperature probes reveal the fire has already surpassed normal heat levels. Reports from the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) indicate dangerously high levels of benzene and hydrogen sulfide in the air.
In March, Missouri’s Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) – which has jurisdiction over Bridgeton Landfill – quietly posted an Internet notice cautioning citizens with chronic respiratory diseases to limit time outdoors. A month after Republic distributed its potentially misleading flier, the state attorney general sued the company on eight counts of environmental violations, including pollution and public nuisance. And this week, as part of a settlement set to be announced Tuesday, Republic sent another round of fliers offering to move local families to hotels during a period of increased odor related to remediation efforts.
Scariest of all: The Bridgeton landfill fire is burning close to at least 8,700 tons of nuclear weapons wastes.
est Lake Landfill is an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site that’s home to some of the oldest radioactive wastes in the world. A six-foot chain-link fence surrounds the perimeter, plastered with bright yellow hazard signs that warn of the dangers within. On one corner stands a rusty gas pump. About 1,200 feet south of the radioactive EPA site, the fire at Bridgeton Landfill spreads out like hot barbeque coals. No one knows for sure what happens when an underground inferno meets a pool of atomic waste, but residents aren’t eager to find out.
At a press conference, Peter Anderson – an economist who has studied landfills for over 20 years – raised the worst-case scenario of a “dirty bomb,” meaning a non-detonated, mass release of floating radioactive particles in metro St. Louis.
West Lake’s radioactive waste – all 143,000 cubic yards of it – sits on the outskirts of a former quarry with practically none of the standard safety features found in most municipal landfills. No clay liner blocks toxic leachate – or “garbage juice” – from seeping into area groundwater. No cap keeps toxic gas from dispersing into the air. This unprotected waste sits on a floodplain 1.5 miles away from the Missouri River. Eight miles downstream is a drinking water reservoir that serves 300,000 St. Louisans. Worst of all: The materials dumped in this populous metropolitan area will continue to pose a hazard for hundreds of thousands of years.
This is radioactively hot stuff and it shouldn’t be in the floodplain by the Missouri river.
Robert Criss, a geochemist at Washington University in St. Louis who has studied the issue closely, says the EPA is grossly underplaying a host of risks surrounding West Lake – flooding, earthquakes, liquefaction, groundwater leaching – that could pave the way for a public health crisis. That’s not to mention the recent development of an underground fire nearby. Says Criss, “There is no geological site I can think of that is more absurd to place such waste.”
The Missouri Coalition for the Environment, which has advocated for the removal of West Lake wastes for more than a decade, in part blames Missouri’s ties to the nuclear energy industry for the senators’ lack of action. Both McCaskill and Blunt, as well as Missouri Governor Jay Nixon, have pushed for bringing more nuclear reactors to the state. Any more attention to a hazardous radioactive dump might get in the way of that messaging. “They won’t touch this with a 10-foot pole,” says the Coalition’s safe energy director, Ed Smith. “It doesn’t fit their narrative of clean nuclear power and ‘jobs, jobs, jobs.'”
Bridgeton’s underground fire was news to Ramona Herbert, who moved to Spanish Village with her family last November. She and her husband, Joshua, came here from St. Louis’ inner city, hoping for a safer place to raise their kids. When the Herberts signed a five-year lease for their new home, no one disclosed to them that hot nuclear dumps sit a mile north from their children’s bedrooms. No one told the Herberts that an ongoing landfill fire burns just down the street from their local Bob Evans restaurant.
Read more: St. Louis Landfill Fire | Politics News | Rolling Stone
In August 1977 the CIA admitted to no less than 149 “sub-projects”, including experiments to determine the effects of different drugs on human behavior; work on lie-detectors, hypnosis, and electric shock; and the surreptitious delivery of drug-related materials. Forty-four colleges and universities were involved, along with fifteen research foundations, twelve hospitals or clinics, and three penal institutions. In the infamous MK Ultra mind-altering experiments, the victims were lured to hotel rooms for sexual encounters with prostitutes and were then drugged and monitored by CIA agents.
Military bio-warfare attacks against unsuspecting Americans in the 1950s and 60s are a documented reality. The most notorious was a six-day US military bio-attack on San Francisco in which clouds of potentially harmful bacteria were sprayed over the city. Twelve people developed pneumonia due to these infectious microbes, and one elderly man died from the bio-attack.
In January 1994 President Clinton convened an Advisory Committee to investigate the accusations surrounding the human radiation experiments. In their final report presented to the president on 3 October, 1995, the Committee found that up to the early 1960s it was common for physicians to conduct research on patients without their consent.
The Final Report of the President’s Advisory Committee is now available in The Human Radiation Experiments, published in 1996 by Oxford Press. Although the Committee studied the experiments in depth, there was no attempt to assess the damage done to individuals. In many cases, the names and records of the patients were no longer available, nor was there any easy way to identify how many experiments had been conducted, where they took place, and which government agencies sponsored them.
The Department of Health and Human Services, the primary government sponsor of research, had long since discarded files on experiments performed decades ago.
The Committee discovered “the records of much of the nation’s recent history had been irretrievably lost or simply could not be located” and “only the barest description remained” for the majority of the experiments.
The Department of Energy also claimed all the pertinent records of its predecessor, the AEC, had been destroyed during the 1970s, but in some cases as late as 1989. All CIA records are classified. When records of the top secret MKULTRA program (in which unwitting subjects were experimented upon with a variety of mind-altering drugs) were requested, the CIA explained that all pertinent records had been destroyed during the 1970s when the program became a national scandal.
What is clear from studying the Committee’s Final Report is that the medical and scientific professions collaborated with the government and the military to abuse and harm US citizens. In the process, the nuclear establishment literally got away with murder. And there is simply no end to the secrets that still emerge from the Cold War years that began 58 years ago with the Manhattan Project.
In January 2000, the government presented the results of a statistical study showing that atomic workers employed in the nuclear weapons industry during the Cold War were more likely to suffer a higher rate of cancer, due to their exposure to cancer-causing radiation and chemicals.
From the 1940s up to the present time, government lawyers and scientists have repeatedly rejected the claims of workers who became sick as result of nuclear radiation and exposure to deadly uranium, plutonium, and fluorine.
As many as 600,000 workers in 14 nuclear weapons plants are now affected by the government’s final admission of wrongdoing in exposing these people to cancer and other chronic illnesses.
According to a Los Angeles Times report, “workers told of spending years trying to get compensation payments from the state, of having to hire attorneys to get disability pay, of going to clinics that forced them to sign away rights to a portion of any future disability payment before they could be treated.”
Kay Sutherland, a worker at the Hanford plutonium plant in central Washington State, told a hearing that “the people in this area have been forced into poverty because they’ve had to retire in their 30s, 40s, and 50s, too young to get a retirement, and too young to get Social Security. They fall through the cracks and they die.” Sutherland has lost four of her five family members to disease, and has an enlarged liver and multiple tumors. She considers herself “a Holocaust survivor for the American Cold War.”
How can we stop these nuclear and biological horrors, which have condemned thousands of innocent people to disease and death? Why must decades of government-sanctioned medical abuse be kept secret and covered-up by scientists and physicians who claim to be concerned about the health of the public?
One way to prevent abuse might be to bring the physician-scientist perpetrators of these experiments to justice in a court of law. However, unless the public is aroused, this is unlikely to happen.
Writing in the Columbia Journalism Review, Geoffrey Sea notes: “A startling fact about the experiments is that, despite the documentation of hundreds of cases of unethical conduct resulting in lasting damage to thousands of people, not a single physician or nurse, scientist or technician, policy maker or administrator has yet come forward to admit wrongdoing.”
For over thirty years the “law” allowed the US Department of Defense (DoD) to use Americans as “guinea pigs.” One of those “laws” (the US code annotated Title 50 U.S.C. 1520 – Sec. 1520, dated 30 July, 1977) remained on the books until it was repealed under public pressure in 1998.
NOTE THAT THE GOVERNMENT/MILITARY DAMN WELL DID NOT CHANGE THINGS UNTIL CITIZENS GOT WIND OF THE TREACHERY AND FORCED THEIR HANDS!
WHAT DOES THAT TELL YOU, AMERICA?
The new and revised bill prohibits the DoD from conducting tests and experiments on humans, but allows “exceptions.” One of the exceptions is that a test or experiment can be carried out for “any peaceful purpose that is related to a medical, therapeutic, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or research activity.” Thus, the 1998 law has obvious loopholes which allow secret testing to continue.
Unethical and dangerous experimentation undoubtedly continues in secret up to the present time, ostensibly under the guise of “national security.” Thus, it would seem prudent for patients to think twice before signing-up for government-sponsored medical studies, particularly at leading medical institutions. Enlightened patients might also view doctors (and scientists) with a healthy dose of skepticism, and a touch of ‘paranoia’.
[READ MORE HERE:http://www.whale.to/a/cantwell9.html%5D
EVERYONE SCREAMS “SUPPORT OUR TROOPS”, BUT AFTER THEY COME HOME, WHO “SUPPORTS” THEM THEN? BLOODY FEW EVEN CARE HOW SHAMEFULLY ‘UNCLE SAM’ NEGLECTS HIS RETURNING HEROES…HOW THEY ARE RELEGATED TO A VIRTUAL GARBAGE HEAP AND ABANDONED AFTER THEIR SERVICE TO AMERICA…OR TO ‘AMERIKA, INC’, AFTER THEY’VE BEEN CONTAMINATED BY COUNTLESS THINGS, MOST WHICH WERE INTENTIONALLY ADMINISTERED TO THEM. SUPPORT OUR TROOPS? HOW ABOUT “SUPPORT OUR VETERANS”?
PLEASE CONSIDER THE “WHAT-IF”…WHAT IF THESE STORIES WAS YOUR STORY…AND HOW DO YOU KNOW YOU HAVEN’T BEEN SUBJECTED TO SUCH THINGS?
WE MAY NEVER KNOW THE FULL RANGE OF ALL THAT “TESTING”, BUT WE CAN SEE HOW EASILY AND HOW THOROUGHLY OUR GOVERNMENT/MILITARY COMPLEX USED AMERICAN CITIZENS, AMERICAN TROOPS, AMERICAN CHILDREN AS GUINEA PIGS FOR OVER 60 YEARS…AND WE KNOW THEY ARE STILL IN THE BUSINESS OF CREATING NEW AND “IMPROVED” BIO-WEAPONS, KILLING COMPOUNDS, SILENT KILLERS….SO THEY WILL ALWAYS, ALWAYS NEED HUMAN GUINEA PIGS FOR THAT.
THIS BLOGGER WON’T ACCEPT THE FOLLOWING YOUTUBE LINKS AS “VALID”
THE LINKS WILL TAKE YOU TO ONE OF THE MOST RECENTLY UNCOVERED CASES OF WILLFUL CONTAMINATION OF THOUSANDS OF U.S. CITIZENS IN JUST ONE CITY BY THE MILITARY AND BY FEDERAL AGENCIES.
IT IS CERTAINLY NOT AN ISOLATED CASE.
THERE HAVE BEEN LITERALLY THOUSANDS!