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Ebola-virus-pathogenesisViruses depend on the host cells that they infect to reproduce. When found outside of host cells, viruses exist as a protein coat or Capsid, sometimes enclosed within a membrane. The capsid encloses either DNA or RNA which codes for the virus elements.

When it comes into contact with a host cell, a virus can insert its genetic material into its host, literally taking over the host’s functions. Viruses cause a number of diseases in cells. In humans, smallpox, the common cold, chickenpox, influenza, shingles, herpes, polio, rabies, Ebola, hanta fever, Pneumonia and AIDS are examples of Viral diseases. Even some types of cancer — though definitely not all — have been linked to viruses.

Viral just means its being caused by a virus, and antibiotics would have no effect, bacterial is contagious too but can be treated with antibiotics. A virus needs to run its course (sorry to say) there are things to relieve the discomfort but it can still spread.

We Can’t Stop the Ebola Epidemic Unless We Understand How It’s Spread

bioweaponsAccording to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases at Oxford “The world leaders have to act fast, time is running out before Ebola becomes a “pandemic” when maybe millions of people will die and suffer. The World Health Organization (WHO) must take the lead.”

The majority of scientists are denying that Ebola is airborne technically, but others are still worried that a form of “aerosol transmission” can potentially infect people even without having contact with body fluids.

Ebola cases in Europe have also caused some anxiety since several people have died and one Spanish nurse managed to contract the deadly disease from her patients while wearing a protective suit. Health officials are still trying to figure out what went wrong, making the possibility of having Ebola airborne seemingly more likely.

Making Ebola airborne is not that easy based upon evolutionary theory. Scientists may discuss how rapidly the virus is mutating but the physical changes necessary to have the Ebola virus truly airborne are hardly trivial. First of all, making Ebola airborne would require the development of new surface proteins that would allow the virus to infect the tissues in the respiratory system necessary for the virus to be sent easily out via a sneeze or a cough.

If or when that event were to occur, the lipid membrane (the surface shell) is apparently ineffective at protecting the virus at room temperatures.

This is where the technical differences with aerosol transmission become a factor. To say that Ebola is “airborne” in this manner means the virus has successfully managed to transfer to a new host by being embedded in a heavy droplet.

Aerosol transmission is not a new discovery. Back in 2011, the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) issued a handbook called “USAMRID’s Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook.” One chapter discusses Viral Hemorrhagic Fever, which is how the Ebola virus is categorized. USAMRID claims to have seen Ebola airborne in the past.

“In several instances, secondary infections among contacts and medical personnel without direct body fluid exposure have been documented. These instances have prompted concern of a rare phenomenon of aerosol transmission of infection.”

The World Health Organization also sent out an advisory that discussed the possibility of making Ebola airborne via contaminated fluids.

“Theoretically, wet and bigger droplets from a heavily infected individual, who has respiratory symptoms caused by other conditions or who vomits violently, could transmit the virus – over a short distance – to another nearby person. This could happen when virus-laden heavy droplets are directly propelled, by coughing or sneezing onto the mucus membranes or skin with cuts or abrasions of another person.”

ebola-contagionStill, not everyone believes aerosol transmission is the only risk. Dr. David Sanders, an Ebola virologist and Purdue University professor of biological science, is claiming Ebola is airborne, although not exactly in the conventional sense.

“Our own research shows that Ebola Zaire enters human lung cells from the airway. So it has the inherent capacity to enter the lung from the airway,” he said on Fox News. “I’m not saying that there’s any evidence that the current spread is due to anything but bodily fluid contact, but we have to consider the possibility that it can enter through an airway route.”

The CDC reports Ebola could infect more than 1.4 million people by end of January 2015

Ebola, despite the initial CDC “calming” claims to the contrary, has been scientifically proven to be a communicable airborne virus. Coughing and sneezing can transmit the Ebola virus just like coughing and sneezing can transmit pneumonia and the flu.

CIDRAP Director: Airborne Ebola ‘Single Greatest Concern’ of My Career

The director of the University of Minnesota’s prestigious Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) tells CNN that the possibility of airborne Ebola is the sum of all fears.

“It’s the single greatest concern I’ve ever had in my 40-year public health career,” Dr. Osterholm told CNN. “I can’t imagine anything in my career–and this includes HIV–that would be more devastating to the world than a respiratory transmissible Ebola virus.”

Dr. Osterholm said the way the Ebola epidemic has been managed has been “largely dysfunctional.”

“Nobody’s in command, and nobody’s in charge,” said Dr. Osterholm. “It’s like not having air traffic control at an airport. The planes would just crash into each other.”

According to a new CIDRAP report, researchers just advised the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that “scientific and epidemiologic evidence” now exists that proves Ebola has the potential to be transmitted via exhaled breath and “infectious aerosol particles.”

CIDRAP scientists are now warning both health care providers and the general public that surgical facemasks will not prevent the transmission of Ebola. According to the airborne Ebola report, medical workers must immediately be given full-hooded protective gear and powered air-purifying respirators. CIDRAP has reportedly been a worldwide leader in addressing public health and safety concerns and preparedness since 2001.

Ebola4

The Importation and the supposed Quarantine of Airborne Ebola.

  Case Studies Since 1995 Have Confirmed Likelihood of Airborne Transmission

ALARMINGLY – It was discovered that in 1995 the ability of Ebola to aerosolize –or transmit via airborne pathogens– was reported, studied and confirmed.

In the United States, as with other outbreaks in affected countries, provide potential opportunities for “importation by infected humans and animals.” Furthermore, there are concerns that some of these agents could be used as bioweapons. Person-to-person transmission is documented for Ebola, Marburg, Lassa and Crimean-Congo Viral hemorrhagic fevers. In healthcare settings, transmission of these agents to healthcare personnel, patients and visitors has been described and in some outbreaks has accounted for a large proportion of cases.

According to the CDC, there have been at least 3,270 confirmed cases of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in humans since 1976, including several cases in the U.S. CDC Table of Outbreaks:

  • In 1989, the CDC reports, Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No humans were infected.
  • In 1990, Ebola-Reston virus was introduced once again into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.
  • In 1996, Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human infections were identified.
  • In May of 2004, a Russian scientist died of the Ebola virus after accidentally pricking herself with a syringe while conducting research on infected guinea pigs in Siberia.
  • A similar accident with Ebola had reportedly occurred several months earlier at the US Army’s biodefense laboratory at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Md., but the researcher involved didn’t acquire the disease. This incident is not listed on the CDC’s list of confirmed outbreaks, perhaps because the researcher didn’t develop antibodies.
  • In 2009, a scientist in Berlin, Germany accidentally pricked herself and was infected with Ebola. She was given an experimental vaccine as part of her treatment and did not become ill.

CDC confirmed the first case of unintentional importation of Ebola virus in the U.S.  (Full Video):

“It’s not airborne but we all share the same air we breath.”

Ebola Epidemic Western Africa Panel  – C-Span

Highlights from a speech about Ebola by Michael Osterholm, Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, originally aired on C-SPAN.

“ONE AREA OF A LOT OF CRITICISM IS THE CDC REPORTS 1.4 MILLION CASES BY THE MIDDLE OF JANUARY IN 2 COUNTRIES BUT THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION ESTIMATES 20,000 BY NOVEMBER IN 3 COUNTRIES? HOW CAN THEY BE THAT FAR OFF?”

“WITH REGARDS TO RESEARCH. THERE ARE CERTAINLY ETHICS CHALLENGES ABOUT WHEN WE WILL START ROLLING OUT VACCINES, WHO GETS THEM FIRST, HOW WILL WE TEST THEM, THIS IS A PLACE WHERE SOPHISTICATED METHODOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH COMPASSION CAN ALL BE ALIGNED BUT IT TAKES SOPHISTICATED THINKING.”

“WE KNOW THERE ARE ETHICS CHALLENGES AND THAT THERE IS SO MUCH SUSPICION ABOUT MEDICAL RESEARCH WHEN IT COMES FROM THE WEST. WE SAW WHAT HAPPENS WITH POLIO AND MENINGITIS AND WE GO IN WITH THE BEST OF INTENTIONS THINKING THAT YOU’RE GOING TO HELP. WHETHER THE RESEARCH IS JUST TAKING BLOOD FOR ALL OF THESE VIROLOGY STUDIES, WHICH CAN MAKE A TREMENDOUS DIFFERENCE, WE ALL KNOW THAT IT HAPPENS; WHEN WE TAKE BLOOD THEN PEOPLE DIE.”

“WHEN WE START ROLLING OUT A VACCINE AND MANDATING THAT ANY PROGRAM HAVE THAT RESEARCH AND INPUT COMPONENT TO START UNDERSTANDING WE HAVE A BIG OUTBREAK.”

“$57 MILLION INVESTMENT I THANK THE UNITED STATES FOR THAT SO THE RNC WITH THE EFFICACY HOW WILL WE MAKE IT AND WHERE WILL ME MAKE IT? I WANT TO KNOW THAT NOW. THAT MEANS NOW!”

ebola airborne 1

Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus.

ebola airborne 2

The most likely route of infection of the control monkeys was aerosol, oral or conjunctival exposure to virus-laden droplets secreted or excreted from the experimentally inoculated monkeys

RELATED:

Ebola aerosol transmission is very similar to ‘Community Acquired Pneumonia Virus

Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) acquired infectiously from normal social contact (that is, in the community) as opposed to being acquired during hospitalization (hospital-acquired pneumonia).

CAP occurs throughout the world and is a leading cause of illness and death.

Causes of CAP include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Some forms of CAP can supposedly be prevented by the Pneumococcal Vaccination, but I don’t advise getting it.

 CAPPneumonia has many possible causes. The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we breathe.

Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs. But sometimes these germs can overpower your immune system, even if your health is generally good.

Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia.
CAP occurs because the areas of the lung that absorb oxygen (alveoli) from the atmosphere become filled with fluid and cannot work effectively.

vaccine_dangerVaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds. In rare cases, vaccinations can injure people and, in the United States, they may receive compensation for those injuries under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Early success and compulsion brought widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination campaigns have reduced, and in some cases, induced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions.

Related Pathophysiology:

The symptoms are the result of both the invasion of the lungs by microorganisms and the immune system‘s response to the infection. The mechanisms of infection are quite different for viruses and the other microorganisms.

Viruses:

Viruses must invade cells to reproduce. Typically, a virus reaches the lungs by traveling in droplets through the mouth and nose with inhalation. There, the virus invades the cells lining the airways and the alveoli. This invasion often leads to cell death either through direct killing by the virus or by self-destruction through apoptosis. Further lung damage occurs when the immune system responds to the infection. White blood cells, in particular lymphocytes, activate a variety of chemicals (cytokines), which make fluid leak into the alveoli. The combination of cellular destruction and fluid-filled alveoli interrupts the transportation of oxygen into the bloodstream. In addition to the effects on the lungs, many viruses affect other organs and can lead to illness affecting many different bodily functions. Viruses also make the body more susceptible to bacterial infection; for this reason, bacterial pneumonia often complicates viral CAP.

Bacteria and fungi:

Bacteria and fungi also typically enter the lung with inhalation, though they can reach the lung through the bloodstream if other parts of the body are infected. Often, bacteria live in parts of the upper respiratory tract and are constantly being inhaled into the alveoli. Once inside the alveoli, bacteria and fungi travel into the spaces between the cells and also between adjacent alveoli through connecting pores. This invasion triggers the immune system to respond by sending white blood cells responsible for attacking microorganisms (neutrophils) to the lungs. The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms, but also release cytokines, which result in a general activation of the immune system. This causes the fever, chills, and fatigue common in CAP. The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid leaked from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and result in impaired oxygen transportation. Bacteria often travel from the lung into the blood stream and can result in serious illness such as septic shock, in which there is low blood pressure leading to damage in multiple parts of the body including the brain, kidney, and heart.

Parasites:

A variety of parasites can affect the lungs. In general, these parasites enter the body through the skin or by being swallowed. Once inside the body, these parasites travel to the lungs, most often through the blood. There, a similar combination of cellular destruction and immune response causes disruption of oxygen transportation.

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Ebola Epidemic in Western Africa, Panel Three

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Resource:

Aerosol Transmitted Diseases

Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Virus Disease – Centers for …

Anthrax, tularemia, plague, ebola or smallpox as agents of bioterrorism: recognition in the emergency room

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Ebola Cases Could Reach 1.4 Million Within Four Months

Estimating the Future Number of Cases in the Ebola Epidemic

West African Ebola Outbreak 2014: What You Need to Know

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Ebola Airborne?

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The Ebola Virus Pandemic: “A Weapon of Mass Destruction ..

Last of 3 treated at hospital for Ebola transfers

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The Hot Zone: The Terrifying True Story of the Origins of the …

Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine …

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