The parents are the citizen sending the child, their representative, to the market to buy (the parents) goods. If the child misuses or wastes the money they is no longer trusted with it. But in the consensus process there is no parents authority. Therefore the children can spend the parents money, i.e. the citizen’s money or print more money, borrowing from another source, putting him into debt, paying for their own interests, oppressing the people in the name of “the people.” It is how common-ism AKA communism, AKA Agenda 21, Sustainable development (communitization, democratization, conscietization, etc., i.e. the consensus process (the soviet system—”representative” government “controlled” by departments of ‘change,’ i.e. facilitated meetings of public-private partnerships) works,’ negating sovereignty and the “inalienable rights” of the citizens in the name of “human rights” and the global cause.
Sustainable development is simply being able to “sustain” ‘change’ through the use of the consensus process, preventing a true representative form of government (local, county, state, and national) from taking control over the policy setting environment, preventing those of “the past” (those for individual sovereignty, states sovereignty, and national sovereignty) from preventing ‘change’ (preventing globalism). It is to prevent the Parents from initiating and sustaining sovereignty and inalienable rights which inhibits and blocks the agenda of the “new” world order, i.e. “the children of disobedience” taking total control over the world, in the name of “the citizens,” with all the parentless children of the world united as “one,” negating the parents authority (the individual citizen) from the face of the world.
Whoever establishes the policy setting environment controls the outcome. Majority vote maintains the citizen’s right to be an individual, consensus initiates and sustains socialist rights where the individual only has worth in his contribution to the socialist cause, in his “humanist” (socialist) praxis for the “good” of “the people” i.e. the voice of “the village.”
“It is not individualism that fulfills the individual, on the contrary it destroys him. Society is the necessary framework through which freedom and individuality are made realities” Karl Marx
— Sustainability Education (SE) Teaching Methods — This course showcases the core themes of Sustainability Education (SE), with an emphasis on its role as an ecological, economic and social teaching platform, and will provide teachers with the knowledge and resources necessary to integrate sustainability into their core disciplines.— Grade-Specific Courses — These courses develop 21st century critical assessment strategies for measuring standards-based competencies in sustainability, and approach Sustainability Education (SE) as a multi-disciplinary framework for Common Core standards-based instruction. Grade levels targeted: Elementary, Middle and High School
As the urgency to address environmental, social, and economic challenges increases worldwide, education continues to be seen as a central part of the solutions for sustainability (Sterling, 2001, UNESCO, 1997). In 1997, UNESCO issued a report declaring: “education is the most effective means that society possesses for confronting the challenges of the future. Indeed, education will shape the world of tomorrow” (UNESCO, 1997, pp. 17). The UNESCO report goes on to argue that education should play a pivotal role in bringing about the deep change required to move towards sustainability (UNESCO, 1997). With a focus on educating for sustainability and transformative action, this paper aims to establish effective educational practices needed to achieve key competencies and the behavioral changes required to attain a sustainable future.
Read this to learn how Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) changes the function and content of education globally — the key reason for many of our education ills from the local to national level.
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Also find out how communities are manipulated to inject sustainable development issues (the focus of UN Agenda 21 policies) into local education systems:
Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit 
United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014)
[From the Foreword:] . . . As communities develop sustainability goals, local educational systems and programs can modify existing curricula or create new programs to reinforce those goals.
[p.12:] From the time sustainable development was first endorsed at the UN General Assembly in 1987, the parallel concept of education to support sustainable development has also been explored. From 1987 to 1992, the concept of sustainable development matured as committees discussed, negotiated, and wrote the 40 chapters of Agenda 21. Initial thoughts concerning ESD were captured in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, “Promoting Education, Public Awareness, and Training.”
[p.13:] Every nation will need to reexamine curriculum at all levels (i.e., pre-school to professional education). While it is evident that it is difficult to teach environmental literacy, economics literacy, or civics without basic literacy, it is also evident that simply increasing basic literacy, as it is currently taught in most countries, will not support a sustainable society.
[p.18:] Because ESD is a lifelong process, the formal, nonformal, and informal educational sectors should work together to accomplish local sustainability goals. In an ideal world, the three sectors would divide the enormous task of ESD for the entire population by identifying target audiences from the general public as well as themes of sustainability. They would then work within their mutually agreed upon realms. This division of effort would reach a broader spectrum of people and prevent redundant efforts.
Agenda 21: Chapters, Statement, and Conventions
Section 1 – Social and Economic Dimensions
International cooperation, Combating poverty, Changing consumption patterns, Population and sustainability, Protecting and promoting human health, Sustainable human settlements, Making decisions for sustainable development.
Section 2 – Conservation & Management of Resources
Protecting the atmosphere, Managing land sustainably, Combating deforestation, Combating desertification and drought, Sustainable mountain development, Sustainable agriculture and rural development, Conservation of biological diversity, Management of biotechnology, Protecting and managing the oceans, Protecting and managing fresh water, Safer use of toxic chemicals, Managing hazardous wastes, Managing solid waste and sewage, Managing radioactive wastes.
Section 3 – Strengthening the Role of Major GroupsWomen in sustainable development, Children and youth, Indigenous people, Partnerships with NGOs, Local authorities, Workers and trade unions, Business and industry, Scientists and technologists, Strengthening the role of farmers.
Section 4 – Means of Implementation
Financing: sustainable development; Technology transfer; Science for sustainable development; Education, awareness and training; Creating capacity for sustainable development; Organizing for sustainable development, International law; and Information for decision making.
Accompanying the 40 chapters of Agenda 21 were the Rio Declaration and the following conventions and statement of principles: Statement of Forests, Convention on Climate Change, Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention on Desertification.
To be successful, ESD must go beyond teaching about these global issues. ESD must give people practical skills that will enable them to continue learning after they leave school, to have a sustainable livelihood, and to live sustainable lives. These skills will differ with community conditions. The following list demonstrates the types of skills pupils will need as adults. Note that skills fall into one or more of the three realms of sustainable development – environmental, economic, and social.
[p.23:] Understanding your own values, the values of the society you live in, and the values of others around the world is a central part of educating for a sustainable future. Two common techniques – values clarification and values analysis – are useful to the values component of ESD.
[p.24:] Social justice is another realm of study that involves values.
[p.27:] No one discipline can or should claim ownership of ESD. In fact, ESD poses such broad and encompassing challenges that it requires contributions from many disciplines. For example, consider these disciplinary contributions to ESD:
• Mathematics helps students understand extremely small numbers (e.g., parts per hundred, thousand, or million), which allows them to interpret pollution data.• Language Arts, especially media literacy, creates knowledgeable consumers who can analyze the messages of corporate advertisers and see beyond “green wash.”• History teaches the concept of global change, while helping students to recognize that change has occurred for centuries.• Reading develops the ability to distinguish between fact and opinion and helps students become critical readers of political campaign literature.• Social Studies helps students to understand ethnocentrism, racism, and gender inequity as well as to recognize how these are expressed in the surrounding community and nations worldwide.
Each discipline also has associated pedagogical techniques. The combined pedagogical techniques and strategies of each discipline contribute to an expanded vision of how to teach for creativity, critical thinking, and a desire for life-long learning – all mental habits that support sustainable societies.
[p.27:] While many nations around the world have embraced the need for education to achieve sustainability, only limited progress has been made on any level. This lack of progress stems from many sources. In some cases, a lack of vision or awareness has impeded progress. In others, it is a lack of policy or funding. According to Charles Hopkins, who has spoken with people at many levels of involvement in education (i.e., ministers of education, university professors, K -12 teachers, and students), twelve major issues stymied the advance of ESD during the 1990s and new millennium. By addressing these critical impediments in the planning stage, governments can prevent or reduce delays or derailment of ESD efforts and, ultimately, the attainment of sustainability. In addition to these generic issues, governments at all levels will need to address issues that are specific to local conditions (e.g., the quality of the relationship between the school governors and the teacher union).
[p.31:] To be successful, ESD will need to catch the wave of educational reform. ESD proponents need to identify and illustrate the linkages between the principles of sustainability and the long-term economic well-being of each nation. If ESD can be linked to the current global educational reform movement, educating for sustainability w ill be swept along with the energy of the reform effort. . . .
[p.31:] Sustainable development is a complex and evolving concept. Many scholars and practitioners have invested years in trying to define sustainable development and envisioning how to achieve it on national and local levels. Because sustainable development is hard to define and implement, it is also difficult to teach. Even more challenging is the task of totally reorienting an entire education system to achieve sustainability.
[p.32-33:] Public participation processes whereby stakeholders examine the needs and desires of a community and identify essential elements of basic and secondary education can be adapted and implemented in many types of communities. . . . However valuable, the community consultation process is not without pitfalls. For example, an organized, educated, and articulate few might dominate the process; people who have received little formal education may not feel they have the expertise to take part in or contribute to the process; and the worldviews and life experiences of some people might prevent them from perceiving or accommodating the changes that will come to all regions of the planet in the coming decades. In these cases, how the outcome of the process is used becomes important. A continuum of implementation exists, ranging from ruthlessly implementing the results of a skewed process to totally ignoring the outcomes of the process. The interpretative, political, and interpersonal skills of the implementation team are key in this effort.
[p.33:] ESD by nature is holistic and interdisciplinary and depends on concepts and analytical tools from a variety of disciplines.
[p.34:] Issue 8 – Building Human Capacity
The successful implementation of a new educational trend will require responsible, accountable leadership and expertise in both systemic educational change and sustainable development. . . .
Two models of human resource development currently exist – inservice training and pre-service training. . . .
[p.35:] Teacher education programs need to produce professionals who not only teach sustainability themes but also can “pull together” the various disciplinary strands that will give their students a holistic understanding of a sustainable future and the role of individuals, communities, and nations in a sustainable world. The development of this cadre of expertise will profoundly affect how rapidly nations will begin the move toward sustainability.
[p.36:] Perhaps one of the greatest expenses of implementing ESD will come with providing appropriate basic education. Basic goals, which were established at Jontiem [Thailand] and reaffirmed at Dakar, include educating more children and increasing the universal average minimum of schooling to six years. Meeting these goals w ill require hiring many more teachers. These new teachers must be trained, and current teachers must be retrained, to reorient their curriculums to address sustainability.
[p.36:] Reorienting education to address sustainability will require new financial resources. One of the major problems with ESD is that current education must continue while the new curriculum is being designed and developed.
[p.37:] ESD is a cross-curricular effort. Historically, other cross-curricular efforts (e.g., educational technology) have been expensive. Bringing computers and the Internet into classrooms has required substantial Investments by national, state, and local governments. For example, in the 1980s, Tennessee Governor Lamar Alexander decided that every classroom in the state should have a computer. He knew that in many rural areas communities would resist spending large amounts of money on educational technology; in some areas of poverty, the schools could afford neither the hardware nor the software. Rather than waiting for individual districts to prioritize and fund technology, the state government paid for a computer for each classroom. In the 1990s, Tennessee also paid for an Internet connection for each school, . . .[p.37:] To succeed, ESD must have an authoritative impetus from national or regional governments that will drive policy development. The omission of such an impetus proved to be the downfall of the 1970s global effort to infuse environmental education into the elementary and secondary curriculums. This same fate could befall the ESD effort. The reality of any educational reform is that success depends on both “top down” and “bottom up” efforts.[p.39:] VII. CASE STUDY: TORONTO BOARD OF EDUCATION CURRICULUM REVISION AND REORIENTATION by Charles A. HopkinsIn 1993, the Canadian Province of Ontario mandated that local school boards create outcomes-based curriculum. The first phase was to create a new curriculum for students from Junior Kindergarten (4 year olds) to Grade 9 (15 year olds). The provincial government gave broad guidelines; however, each community was to develop locally relevant curriculum to achieve provincial goals. The mandate was to consult with the community, build a new vision of an appropriate education for the twenty-first century, review the existing program, and then discard, reorient, or build anew. Sweeping changes were in order.Knowing that a massive rewriting of the curriculum was necessary, the administration of the Toronto Board of Education undertook a large-scale community consultation. In preparation for the community consultation, the central office trained 200 people to lead focus groups. Any teacher could volunteer to become a focus group leader. The prospective leaders worked with staff developing the facilitation techniques and processes for use in the consultation. Notices went out to the three major newspapers and the more than 70 ethnic newspapers of Toronto. Efforts were made to contact the corporate sector, and speakers from the corporate world were invited to specifically address community groups during the consultations. All the schools announced the consultation process to parents and most schools ran their own community-based meetings.In addition, three consultation sessions were held across the city. Participants were requested to stay for the entire day, rather than making a statement and then leaving. The focus of the daylong inquiry was the simple question:“What should students know, do, and value by the time they graduate from school?”[ . . . ]. . . the representative of large businesses claimed that a focus solely upon math, science, and technology was not the answer for Canadian industry. He pointed out that due to the lack of investment capital in Canada, any successful business would eventually be purchased by a foreign firm and moved out of the country. He stated that for ongoing Canadian success, math, science, and technology should be taught in conjunction with the arts to stimulate the creativity that would be necessary to recover from the loss of industry. The representative of labor surmisedthat the world of work for many people in the twenty-first century would be one of part-time employment in mundane service-sector roles. He spoke of the need for broad-based learning that involved lifelong learning. Labor’s vision included the arts, parenting, and social skills that embraced a world beyond employment.[p.42-43:] The essence of the Toronto reform is that the curriculum is no longer focused exclusively on the traditional core subjects of language, mathematics, history, etc. Informed by the new vision of what the community felt tomorrow’s students would need to know and be able to do, these disciplines underwent major revision. Mathematics, for example, now includes the skill of comprehending extremely large and extremely small numbers — e.g., ppm and ppb — which are essential to environmental literacy and understanding relative risk factors, both in personal life and at work. Health now includes environmental issues such as cancer, allergies, and food additives as well as ‘consumerism.’UNESCO, 1997, p. 25[p.44-45:] Shifting goals in isolation is usually insufficient for sustained systemic change. Studies of management systems show that a number of steps must be taken together for a new idea to go from vision to self-sustaining reality. Although each institution has its own way of bringing about change, three general starting points are common — the three Ps: program, policy, and practice. For ESD or any other innovation to become an integral part of an institution, these three areas must be addressed simultaneously or in short succession.[p.54:] Reorienting education to address sustainability is a huge project. It will require activity on the national, regional, state/provincial, and local levels. It will probably involve a long list of government officials, legislators, administrators, teachers, unions, and nonprofit organizations.[p.55:] Reorienting education to address sustainability will involve identifying and dealing with barriers. Some barriers can be circumvented while others will require confrontation and change
[p.57:] Public participation processes take many forms, including face-to-face deliberation, problem solving, consensus building, traditional public hearings, and public comment procedures. Public participation is a powerful tool for gaining insights from many sectors of the community. Since the Earth Summit in 1992, communities in many nations have used public participation processes to create civic priorities and sustainability goals.
Added 4/29/2013From what I can tell, ESD is at the top of the [global] education reform dung heap — the big umbrella that covers all other issues (e.g., [common core] standards/outcomes, assessments, curriculum, classroom methods & processes, teacher training, etc.).
“Achieving sustainable development requires a global change of mindset and behaviours. Indeed, it has long been recognized that education is crucial for achieving sustainable development. The UN Conference on the Human Environment (‘Stockholm Conference’) in 1972 emphasized education as a way of addressing human-environment problems. Agenda 21, the document adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, ‘Rio Summit’, Rio de Janeiro, 1992), emphasized the need to promote education, public awareness and training in order to assist bringing about sustainable development. In particular, Chapter 36 (Promoting education, public awareness and training) states: ‘Education is critical for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of the people to address environment and development issues.’ The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD, Johannesburg, 2002) reaffirmed this commitment and recommended to the United Nations General Assembly the establishment of a United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD, 2005-2014), which clearly recognizes the increased need to integrate sustainable development issues and principles into education and learning. Thus, while education clearly is not a sufficient condition in itself for achieving sustainable development, it is certainly a necessary condition.”(Source: UN Decade Education for Sustainable Development, UNESCO website. Accessed 4.6.13. http://www.esd-world-conference-2009.org/en/background-information/desd.html )
The U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development
GOAL: The U.S. Partnership consists of individuals, organizations and institutions in the United States dedicated to education for sustainable development (ESD). It acts as a convener, catalyst, and communicator working across all sectors of American society.VISION: Sustainable development fully integrated into education and learning in the United States.MISSION: Leverage the UN Decade to foster education for sustainable development in the United States.
“Let me congratulate you on the convening of the UNESCO World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development. President Obama and I share a great interest in your important work to promote education for sustainability.” http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/internationaled/unesco-letter.pdf
Excerpt: Through the Race to the Top and other programs, we’ve unleashed an avalanche of pent-up reform activity across the states and literally thousands of districts. Later today, I will announce the winners of 21 planning grants for the Promise Neighborhoods program. These nonprofits, schools, and universities will be putting education at the center of their efforts to rebuild their distressed communities. They will offer a comprehensive set of services— health screenings, parenting classes, and early learning opportunities. . . .Excerpt: . . . this sustainability summit marks a new milestone for the U.S. Department of Education. Until now, we’ve been mostly absent from the movement to educate our children to be stewards of our environment and prepare them to participate in a sustainable economy. That work is taking hold in corporations, in other agencies of the federal government, as well as colleges, universities, and schools across the country.Excerpt: Historically, the Department of Education hasn’t been doing enough in the sustainability movement. Today, I promise you that we will be a committed partner in the national effort to build a more environmentally literate and responsible society.Several agencies across the federal government already have made important contributions linking education and sustainability. The National Science Foundation has created a network of projects that are advancing programs that teach about the impact of climate change. The Environmental Protection Agency makes grants to support environmental education. The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration supports environmental literacy through its own grant program. The Department of Labor has awarded $490 million to support job training in skills needed in green jobs. All of this money comes from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.Excerpt: We at the Education Department are energized about joining these leaders in their commitment to preparing today’s students to participate in the green economy, and to be well-educated about the science of sustainability. We must advance the sustainability movement through education.Excerpt: . . . At the initiative of the green team, the Department recently issued grants to five states to develop career pathways that will support the green economy. These career pathways will define the academic knowledge and vocational skills that students will need to prepare themselves for green jobs in architecture, agriculture, energy, transportation and waste management. The National Research Center for Career and Technical Education is working closely with these states and, where appropriate, with the business community to design the programs of study that will lead to success in the green industry.
(Source: The Greening of the Department of Education: Secretary Duncan’s Remarks at the Sustainability Summit, 9/10/10. http://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/greening-department-education-secretary-duncans-remarks-sustainability-summit )
“Education for Sustainable Development is relevant to everyone, at whatever stage of life they are and in any context. ESD is an integral part of lifelong learning, engaging all possible learning spaces — formal, non-formal and informal, from early child to adult life.”
Education for Sustainable Development Lens: A Policy and Practice Review Tool
￼Education for Sustainable Development in Action
Learning & Training Tools no. 2 – 2010 | UNESCO Education Sector
(Underline emphasis added. Notes added in brackets [ ] )
Excerpt (p.3-4): The Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Lens has been prepared to support UN Member States to respond to these challenges through implementation of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD, 2005- 2014). The ESD Lens supports the goals of the DESD, and encourages policy-makers and practitioners in Member States to initiate the process of re-orienting education, particularly the formal education system, towards sustainable development. The overall goal of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) is for countries to integrate the understandings, skills and values inherent in sustainable development into all aspects of national education plans to encourage changes in lifestyles and behaviour that allow for a more sustainable and just society for all. This complements existing [United Nations] Education for All initiatives, and strengthens the objectives of the [United Nations] Millennium Development Goals. . . . .Excerpt (p.3-4): ‘The DESD calls on the Governments to consider the inclusion of measures to implement the Decade in their respective education systems and strategies and, where appropriate, into national development plans’.2 This ESD Lens provides tools to start this process. It can be adapted to different educational contexts, and country- specific policy and practice needs. It is not prescriptive, but provides guidelines and starting points for reviewing education policy and practice using an ESD perspective. ESD Lens Review Tools are provided for planning, for building knowledge of ESD, for reviewing national policy and the aims of education, for reviewing quality learning outcomes, and for reviewing more specific and detailed aspects of the education system such as curriculum, learning materials, assessment and teacher education. The tool is flexible and can be used at different levels of the system. Some of the tools are more suited to policy-makers, while others can be used by teachers and principals in schools. Ideally they should all be used to ensure a more systemic re-orientation of the education system in a country, province, region or district. . . .Excerpt (last page of pdf): UNESCO has launched the series “ESD Learning & Training Tools” to increase the availability of teaching, training, learning and resource materials on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) issues. This series provides governments, communities and individuals with a deeper understanding of the benefits of a “sustainability approach” and how education can contribute to it, along with practical tools to carry out ESD actions.The ESD Lens is a guiding tool for reviewing and improving educational policy and practice using ESD perspectives. It seeks to assist Member States and stakeholders in undertaking a rapid review of existing education plans and strategies for formal basic education systems; to identify gaps and provide recommendations to address them. It also provides a checklist of steps to be undertaken to assess education plans, strategies and programmes from ESD perspectives.
A report submitted to the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes
Initial draft completed 19 May, 2009 Revised 19 July, 2009
Description (p.3 of pdf): This report describes the status of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in the United States of America. It was completed in 2009 as part of the work of the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (http://www.intlalliance.org/alliance.html), and is one of ten such national reports. In response to the Alliance’s charge, this report focuses on formal (school-based) education at the primary and secondary levels. It addresses theoretical concerns as well as research results and the practical realities of American ESD.
The first section introduces the national context, focusing in particular on the decentralized nature of American education governance. It also reviews the history of ESD in the United States and outlines the general trend of growth and diversification. The second section describes in greater detail the historical and contemporary influences on American ESD, including federal and state governments and an array of non-governmental organizations. In the absence of a coherent national strategy for ESD, this section attempts to summarize what American ESD is and is not, and how it got that way. The third and final section offers a selective (rather than comprehensive) tour of research and practice in ESD, commenting on the status of ESD-related curricular and pedagogical models as well as teacher education and whole-school reform.
UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005 – 2014
The DESD at a glance
The global governance crowd is getting bold! See “Table 1: EfS Grade Band Concepts — Summary Chart” (below excerpt p.4).
“Table 1” includes a litany of concepts that have been opposed by those throughout the nation who for decades have been working to stop the decline of U.S. education. While the information in Table 1 is not new, it is the first I’ve noticed this many bad ideas lumped together in one place.
Those who are dragged through [U.N. Agenda 21] Education for Sustainable Development will be conditioned to ideologically accept global governance.
P.S. Here’s the USPESD K-12 Resource web page that has links to more information: http://www.uspartnership.org/main/show_passage/48
US Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development
National Education for Sustainability K-12 Student Learning Standards
Version 3 – September 2009
Endorsed byNational Council for the Social Studies
The National Education for Sustainability K-12 Student Learning Standards define what K-12 students should know and be able to do to be sustainability literate. Included are three overarching student learning standards or essential understandings followed by a summary chart (Table 1) of Education for Sustainability (EfS) concepts by K-4, 5-8, and 9-12 grade bands. Grade band concepts are organized by components which are directly connected to the three learning standards. Following the summary chart are three individual grade band tables (Tables 2, 3, and 4) that include the EfS concepts with example performance indicators. A glossary of terms is found at the conclusion of the document.
The Education for Sustainability (EfS) standards were developed by the K-12 and Teacher Education Sector of the U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development (USPESD) with input from K-12 educators in public, private, and pre-service (teacher education) fields. For more information about the USPESD please visit www.uspartnership.org.
Defining Education for Sustainability
Education for Sustainability or Sustainability Education is a relatively new and evolving field. For the purpose of the USP standards, Education for Sustainability is defined as a combination of content, learning methods, and outcomes that helps students develop a knowledge base about the environment, the economy, and society, in addition to helping them learn skills, perspectives, and values that guide and motivate them to seek sustainable livelihoods, participate in a democratic society, and live in a sustainable manner (McMillan and Higgs, 2003).
Purpose and Intent
This is primarily a guidance document for integrating sustainability concepts into K-12 teaching and learning. The EfS standards can be used to help direct a course of study related to sustainability education. Education for Sustainability is by nature interdisciplinary, and therefore can be readily integrated into core content teaching and learning. Education for Sustainability uses a variety of pedagogical techniques that promote participatory learning and higher-order thinking skills.
Education for Sustainability – Student Learning Standards (Essential Understandings)
EfS Standard 1 – Students understand and are able to apply the basic concepts and principles of sustainability (i.e.: meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs).
EfS Standard 2 – Students recognize the concept of sustainability as a dynamic condition characterized by the interdependency among ecological, economic, and social systems and how these interconnected systems affect individual and societal well-being. They develop an understanding of the human connection to and interdependence with the natural world.
EfS Standard 3 – Students develop a multidisciplinary approach to learning the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to continuously improve the health and well-being of present and future generations, via both personal and collective decisions and actions. They are able to envision a world that is sustainable, along with the primary changes that would need to be made by individuals, local communities, and countries in order to achieve this.
USP EFS standards v3 Table 1.tiff Very Large tiff (picture file 4.6 MB
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Environmental Justice and Sustainability
This 2012 powerpoint presentation on “sustainability education” (aka Education for Sustainable Development) is loaded with many (old) reform ideas.
All will be familiar to long time researchers, as similar ideas exist(ed) in part and in varying degrees with Life Skills, Lifelong Learning/Education, School-to-Work and SCANS (foundation and workplace skills), Smaller Learning Communities, Skills for the 21st Century or 21st Century Skills, International Baccalaureate programs, Ethnic/Multicultural Studies, 21st Century Learning Centers, Community Learning Centers, Global Education, Humanistic/Holistic Education, etc.,,,.
The only new jargon I noticed: “deep learning & deep thinking” (replacement for so-called “critical thinking”?).
The Cloud Institute for Sustainability Education (2012)
Slide 32 & 33: Selected Fields of Study that Contribute to Education for Sustainability
- Common Core/Content Standards
- Character Education
- Understanding by Design (Wiggins)
- Mindfulness Attributes
- The Entrepreneurial Mindset
- Partnership for 21st Century Skills
- Cultural Competency (Steven Jones)
- Social Emotional Intelligence Attributes
- Habits of Mind (Costa and Kallick)
- Whole New Mind (Daniel Pink)
- Neuro-Leadership (David Rock)
Who is already educating for sustainability?— Arne Duncan: “Education and sustainability are the keys to our economic future-and our ecological future”
Speech by Maurice F. Strong, General Secretary of the United Nation regarding Agenda 21 and Sustainable development:Agenda 21, also referred to as Earth Summit, is an all-inclusive plan of action that is to be completed globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, governments, and major environmental groups in every area in which humans impact the environment. Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Statement of principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests were all adopted by more than 178 governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development that was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 13-14, 1992.
The Commission on Sustainable Development was created in December 1992 to ensure successful follow-up of UNCED and to monitor and report on execution of the agreements at all levels. All 178 governments agreed that a special session of the United Nations General Assembly would be called in 1997 to review the progress of Agenda 21 after a 5-year introduction period. The full implementation of Agenda 21 was reaffirmed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg, South Africa from August 26 – September 4, 2002.
Agenda 21 is not just about making improvements in “nature”. It also includes plans of action regarding poverty, hunger, ill health, illiteracy, as well as the continuing deterioration of the ecosystems. The success of Agenda 21 is contingent upon integration of environmental and developmental concerns and greater attention to them. It is also dependant upon the fulfillment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, and better protected and managed ecosystems. Only if this is accomplished can we be assured a safer, more prosperous future. No nation can achieve this alone, however; if all nations
work together to construct a global partnership for sustainable development, we can achieve the goals set forth in Agenda 21
Agenda 21 concentrates on the urgent problems of today and also aspires to prepare the world for the challenges of the next century. It reflects a global agreement and political commitment at the highest level on development and environment teamwork. Its successful completion is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are essential in accomplishing this. International cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts. In this context, the United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and sub regional organizations are also called upon to contribute to this effort. The broadest public participation and the active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be encouraged.
Agenda 21 constitutes a plan of action for the 90s and the first part of the XXI century, and is the global alliance of Humanity in favor of the environment and development, in other words, sustainable development.
Agenda 21 is an extensive structural document consisting of 40 chapters drawn up in the form of a plan of action. It is a project of actions for development to be socially, economically and environmentally sustainable.
Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. We are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being; however, integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to them will lead to the fulfillment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems and a safer, more prosperous future. No nation can achieve this alone; but together we can – in a global partnership for sustainable development.
Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the challenges of the next century. It reflects a global consensus and political commitment at the highest level on development and environment cooperation. Its successful implementation is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in achieving this. International cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts. In this context, the United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and sub regional organizations are also called upon to contribute to this effort. The broadest public participation and the active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be encouraged.
The developmental and environmental objectives of Agenda 21 will require a substantial flow of new and additional financial resources to developing countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for the actions they have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to accelerate sustainable development. Financial resources are also required for strengthening the capacity of international institutions for the implementation of Agenda 21. An indicative order-of-magnitude assessment of costs is included in each of the programmed areas. This assessment will need to be examined and refined by the relevant implementing agencies and organizations.
In the implementation of the relevant programmed areas identified in Agenda 21, special attention should be given to the particular circumstances facing the economies in transition. It must also be recognized that these countries are facing unprecedented challenges in transforming their economies, in some cases in the midst of considerable social and political tension.
The programmed areas that constitute Agenda 21 are described in terms of the basis for action, objectives, activities and means of implementation. Agenda 21 is a dynamic program. It will be carried out by the various actors according to the different situations, capacities and priorities of countries and regions in full respect of all the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. It could evolve over time in the light of changing needs and circumstances. This process marks the beginning of a new global partnership for sustainable development.
“Agenda 21” is based on the premise that sustainable development is not
merely an option; it is imperative. This is as true in the environmental as it
is in the economic sense, and although the transition toward sustainable
development will be difficult, it is totally viable. It requires a major change
in the priorities of governments and citizens, involving a complete
integration of environmental facets into economic policy and decision-taking at all levels of activity. Further, it will take a notable reorientation of human and financial resources at the national and international levels. This global alliance is essential for the global Community to take a new road to a more sustainable, secure and equal future as we head toward the 21st century. The primary responsibility of our common future is, strictly speaking, “in our hands”. ( Maurice F. Strong, General Secretary of the United Nation)
Is U.N. Agenda 21 in Your Town, County, State? http://www.freedomadvocates.org/images/pdf/Is%20UN%20Agenda%2021%20in%20your%20Town-County-State.pdf
Be sure to cvlick on the link — UN Agenda 21 Sustainable Development disguised as Quality of Life initiatives [by Debra K. Niwa, Aug. 7, 2012. updated 12/2012] — to download pdf.
U.N. Agenda 21 “sustainable development” introduced in the U.S. Congress
In response to the “primary responsibility of our common future,” it is not in “our hands,” but “in the UN’s hands,” not in what is yours or mine but in the “ours,” i.e. subject to meetings of policy based upon creating consensus with the citizens, seduced, deceived, and manipulated by facilitators of ‘change’ into the ‘changing’ of government from a top-down, representative (limited) form of government, to a collective, soviet (totalitarian) form of government with its public-private partnerships, i.e. a diverse group, dialoguing to consensus (there is no true “representation” in the dialoguing to consensus), over social issues, in a facilitated meeting, to a predetermined outcome that no policy, from thereon, will be established except from the soviet form of government as just described, i.e. where policy is controlled by facilitators of ‘change.’ The citizens are seduced by a legitimate crisis (maybe), concerns which need immediate attention, deceived into trusting leadership who say that they have “the peoples best interest in mind” when the only have advancement of the process of ‘change’ in mind, and manipulated through the questions (“feeling” and “thinking” based question engender “feelings” and “thinking,” opinions answers. There is no knowing, no sovereignty, no inalienable rights in “feelings” and “thoughts,” in opinions, only in right and wrong, in “Because I said so” answers). Whoever defines terms for you controls your life. The big print giveth and the small print taketh away. Nobody is bothering to read the small print. Besides, you are not given time to do so and if you ask for it you are considered being subversive to the best interest of the community, i.e. being argumentative and divisive, i.e. preventing the process of ‘change’ (the consensus process) from taking over and “controlling” the peoples lives. Dean Gotcher
“Bypassing the traditional channels of top-down decision making, our objective centers upon …. transform public opinion into an effective instrument of global politics.” “Individual values must be measured by their contribution to common interests and ultimately to world interests…. transforming public consensus into one favorable to the emergence of a stable and humanistic world order.” “Consensus is both a personal and a political step. It is a precondition of all future steps…” (Ervin Laszlo, A Strategy for the Future: The Systems Approach to World Order)
“It is proposed that no facts or opinion be considered by the Congress unless the facts and opinions be the established consensus of a group of collaborators.” (Harry Stack Sullivan, regarding how the UN sets policy, The Fusion of Psychiatry and Social Science)
Common connection between Agenda 21 and CDBG, which is out of HUD:
Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), governed by CFR Title 24, Section 91, where the “Overall Goal” (Section 91.1) of HUD
“To develop viable urban communities by providing decent housing and a suitable living environment and expanding economic opportunities principally for low- and moderate-income persons.”
Agenda 21, “Human Settlement Objective,” 7.4:
“The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic and environmental quality of human settlements and the living and working environments of all people, in particular the urban and rural poor.”
The following copied from http://www.worldviewweekend.com/worldview-times/article.php?articleid=7035
Agenda 21 In One Easy Lesson
Posted in: Sustainable Development
Awareness of Agenda 21 and Sustainable Development is racing across the nation as citizens in community after community are learning what their city planners are actually up to. As awareness grows, I am receiving more and more calls for tools to help activists fight back. Many complain that elected officials just won’t read detailed reports or watch long videos. “Can you give us something that is quick, and easy to read that we can hand out,” I’m asked.
So here it is. A one page, quick description of Agenda 21 that fits on one page. I’ve also included for the back side of your hand out a list of quotes for the perpetrators of Agenda 21 that should back up my brief descriptions.
A word of caution, use this as a started kit, but do not allow it to be your only knowledge of this very complex subject. To kill it you have to know the facts. Research, know your details; discover the NGO players in your community; identify who is victimized by the policies and recruit them to your fight; and then kill Agenda 21. That’s how it must be done. The information below is only your first step. Happy hunting.
What is Sustainable Development?
According to its authors, the objective of sustainable development is to integrate economic, social and environmental policies in order to achieve reduced consumption, social equity, and the preservation and restoration of biodiversity. Sustainablists insist that every societal decision be based on environmental impact, focusing on three components; global land use, global education, and global population control and reduction.
Social Equity (Social Justice)
Social justice is described as the right and opportunity of all people “to benefit equally from the resources afforded us by society and the environment.” Redistribution of wealth. Private property is a social injustice since not everyone can build wealth from it. National sovereignty is a social injustice. Universal health care is a social justice. All part of Agenda 21 policy.
Public Private Partnerships (PPP). Special dealings between government and certain, chosen corporations which get tax breaks, grants and the government’s power of
Eminent Domain to implement sustainable policy. Government-sanctioned monopolies.
Local Sustainable Development policies
Smart Growth, Wildlands Project, Resilient Cities, Regional Visioning Projects, STAR Sustainable Communities, Green jobs, Green Building Codes, “Going Green,” Alternative Energy, Local Visioning, facilitators, regional planning, historic preservation, conservation easements, development rights, sustainable farming, comprehensive planning, growth management, consensus.
Who is behind it?
ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability (formally, International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives). Communities pay ICLEI dues to provide “local” community plans, software, training, etc. Addition groups include American Planning Council, The Renaissance Planning Group, International City/ County Management Group, aided by US Mayors Conference, National Governors Association, National League of Cities, National Association of County Administrators and many more private organizations and official government agencies. Foundation and government grants drive the process.
Where did it originate?
The term Sustainable Development was first introduced to the world in the pages a 1987 report (Our Common Future) produced by the United Nations World Commission on Environmental and Development, authored by Gro Harlem Brundtland, VP of the World Socialist Party. The term was first offered as official UN policy in 1992, in a document called UN Sustainable Development Agenda 21, issued at the UN’s Earth Summit, today referred to simply as Agenda 21.
What gives Agenda 21 Ruling Authority?
More than 178 nations adopted Agenda 21 as official policy during a signing ceremony at the Earth Summit. US president George H.W. Bush signed the document for the US. In signing, each nation pledge to adopt the goals of Agenda 21. In 1995, President Bill Clinton, in compliance with Agenda 21, signed Executive Order #12858 to create the President’s Council on Sustainable Development in order to “harmonize” US environmental policy with UN directives as outlined in Agenda 21. The EO directed all agencies of the Federal Government to work with state and local community governments in a joint effort “reinvent” government using the guidelines outlined in Agenda 21. As a result, with the assistance of groups like ICLEI, Sustainable Development is now emerging as government policy in every town, county and state in the nation.
Revealing Quotes From the Planners
“Agenda 21 proposes an array of actions which are intended to be implemented by EVERY person on Earth…it calls for specific changes in the activities of ALL people… Effective execution of Agenda 21 will REQUIRE a profound reorientation of ALL humans, unlike anything the world has ever experienced… ” Agenda 21: The Earth Summit Strategy to Save Our Planet (Earthpress, 1993). Emphases – DR
Urgent to implement – but we don’t know what it is!
“The realities of life on our planet dictate that continued economic development as we know it cannot be sustained…Sustainable development, therefore is a program of action for local and global economic reform – a program that has yet to be fully defined.” The Local Agenda 21 Planning Guide, published by ICLEI, 1996.
“No one fully understands how or even, if, sustainable development can be achieved; however, there is growing consensus that it must be accomplished at the local level if it is ever to be achieved on a global basis.” The Local Agenda 21 Planning Guide, published by ICLEI, 1996.
Agenda 21 and Private Property
“Land…cannot be treated as an ordinary asset, controlled by individuals and subject to the pressures and inefficiencies of the market. Private land ownership is also a principle instrument of accumulation and concentration of wealth, therefore contributes to social injustice.” From the report from the 1976 UN’s Habitat I Conference.
“Private land use decisions are often driven by strong economic incentives that result in several ecological and aesthetic consequences…The key to overcoming it is through public policy…” Report from the President’s Council on Sustainable Development, page 112.
“Current lifestyles and consumption patterns of the affluent middle class – involving high meat intake, use of fossil fuels, appliances, home and work air conditioning, and suburban housing are not sustainable.” Maurice Strong, Secretary General of the UN’s Earth Summit, 1992.
Reinvention of Government
“We need a new collaborative decision process that leads to better decisions, more rapid change, and more sensible use of human, natural and financial resources in achieving our goals.” Report from the President’s Council on Sustainable Development
“Individual rights will have to take a back seat to the collective.” Harvey Ruvin, Vice Chairman, ICLEI. The Wildlands Project
“We must make this place an insecure and inhospitable place for Capitalists and their projects – we must reclaim the roads and plowed lands, halt dam construction, tear down existing dams, free shackled rivers and return to wilderness millions of tens of millions of acres or presently settled land.” Dave Foreman, Earth First.
What is not sustainable?
Ski runs, grazing of livestock, plowing of soil, building fences, industry, single family homes, paves and tarred roads, logging activities, dams and reservoirs, power line construction, and economic systems that fail to set proper value on the environment.” UN’s Biodiversity Assessment Report.
Hide Agenda 21’s UN roots from the people
“Participating in a UN advocated planning process would very likely bring out many of the conspiracy- fixated groups and individuals in our society… This segment of our society who fear ‘one-world government’ and a UN invasion of the United States through which our individual freedom would be stripped away would actively work to defeat any elected official who joined ‘the conspiracy’ by undertaking LA21. So we call our process something else, such as comprehensive planning, growth management or smart growth.” J. Gary Lawrence, advisor to President Clinton’s Council on Sustainable Development.
Distributed by www.worldviewweekend.com
THE SONORAN INSTITUTE
Attempting To Put A Legitimate Face On Radical Environmentalism
Compiled by The Alternative View(no date)
Text (emphasis added):
The Sonoran Institute was introduced into the Growth Policy development of Jefferson County, Montana, in 2000, as “a Montana-based, nonprofit organization committed to working with communities on land-use planning”. Buying their way in with a $10,000 grant, Sonoran virtually took over Jefferson County’s Growth Policy planning process. In fact, rather than being “Montana-based”, Sonoran is actually based in Tucson, Arizona; and rather than a benign land use planning group committed to helping communities, Sonoran is an environmental organization championing a very radical agenda known as The Wildlands Project.
The Wildlands Project was co-founded by Earth First!’s Dave Foreman, the author of Ecodefence: A Field guide to Monkeywrenching. TWP, explained in the United Nations’ Global Biodiversity Assessment as a network of core areas, corridors and buffer zones for wild animals, promotes the “theory” that a “great mass die-off of species” is now underway, and blames this “crisis” on “human-driven” activities. The theory also claims that ecosystems often “crash” when “the pre-Columbian set of carnivores” are absent. TWP is composed of at least 31 coalitions of environmentalists throughout North America, each working on a specific area with an over-all plan of putting approximately 50% of the land into restricted habitat. The Sonoran Institute is primarily involved in three of those TWP areas: the Sonoran Desert Ecoregion in southwestern Arizona, the Sky Islands Wildlands Network in southeastern Arizona, and from their Montana office, the Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative.
Founded in 1991 with technical and financial assistance from World Wildlife Fund, the Sonoran Institute is headed by Luther Propst, formerly a Senior Associate of WWF and of The Conservation Foundation which then merged with WWF. WWF is the “sister organization” of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and is literally at the power center of global environmentalism, operating primarily with the influence and foundation money of the Rockefellers.
The IUCN co-authored with the United Nations Environmental Program several foundational documents of the U.N. treaties on Biological Diversity and Climate Change, and for the U.N. Agenda 21. (For extensive information about the U.N.’s environmental agenda call 731 986-0099 or see freedom.org to ecologic.) Virtually unknown to many American citizens, these socialist U.N. policies are being disseminated throughout the U.S. by the President’s Council on Sustainable Development down to the local level through the National Association of Counties. NACo, in direct collaboration with Sonoran, and with money from the environmentalist Doris Duke foundation, has helped enable Sonoran’s involvement in Montana’s western counties
In fact, it is logical to surmise that foundations virtually control the environmental agenda. The Sonoran staff which gained control of Jefferson County’s planning process were paid specifically with a grant from the V. Kann Rassmusson Foundation under the Yellowstone to Yukon program. Many environmental grants are prescriptive, given with strings attached; essentially hiring environmentalist organizations and individuals to do their bidding. In 1999 Sonoran received $1,082,900. in grants from large foundations. Of that grant money, 93.3% came with “restrictions”.
Sonoran’s Montana office was opened in Bozeman in 1997 by Ray Rasker and Ben Alexander for the specific purpose of furthering, and legitimizing, the Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative. Rasker and Alexander had been commissioned by the Y2Y leadership to write a study showing that “resource industries such as mining, timber, agriculture, and oil and gas are no longer the only game in town”, and that now it’s “tourism, new technology and information-based industries.” Although Sonoran claims to want to save “working ranches”, the TWP and Y2Y policy is that: “Commercial livestock grazing on federal and state lands cannot be justified ecologically or economically.”
The Y2Y project comprises a network of over 270 environmental groups, organizations and individuals, and targets an area 1,990 miles long by 125 to 500 miles wide. Their literature urges their followers to “contact federal, state, and provincial politicians, encouraging them to support large-scale habitat protection initiatives like Y2Y. You might also ask them to enact strong, comprehensive Endangered Species legislation.” It requests that its adherents who live in the Y2Y area “Work at the local level to ensure that principles of conservation biology are recognized in current management, planning, and land use decisions.” While this all sounds noble, the entire program is anti-growth, and threatens not only private property rights, but access to public lands as well; however, that does not seem to bother Sonoran.
Although Sonoran is intricately involved in promoting the radical TWP along with Earth First!, they have gained the confidence of county planners by not being up-front with their environmental agenda. Y2Y and Sonoran have formed a partnership in which Sonoran will provide planning “tools and guidance to communities interested in identifying common values and developing locally-based, inclusive conservation strategies to protect what’s important to them.” It has certainly become obvious what is important to Sonoran.
Sonoran often works with American Farmland Trust which has, with the help of Mark Haggerty of the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, created the ‘Cost of Community Services Study’* which is designed to show that residential development costs taxpayers much more money then does open land. Sonoran uses this fraudulent study, which AFT’s own handbook admits can be easily biased, to encourage local governments to zone and regulate private property. In conjunction with that they also use the unethical technique of ‘facilitation’* to manipulate small group meetings and large public audiences to a predetermined outcome while giving the illusion of taking public input. In the end, Sonoran’s underlying goal of stopping rural development is furthered.
A new venture of The Sonoran Institute is the Resources for Community Collaboration project. RCC will provide grants of up to $10,000 to provide seed money for organizations involved in “community based collaboration” if those groups are developing solutions for long-term protection, sustainable use or for restoration of natural landscapes in the rural West. A close reading of RCC’s requirements reveals this part of Sonoran to also be anti-growth, and threatening to private property rights. (‘Restoration’, according to TWP virtually means returning to the pre-development era.)
As mentioned above, Luther Propst, Sonorans’s founder, was previously a Senior Associate of the Conservation Foundation. According to Ron Arnold and Alan Gottlieb in their book “Trashing the Economy” (425-454-7009), TCF is “the most exclusive and prestigious environmental think tank of all – and Laurance Rockefeller was a board member of TCF for many years…many environmentalists called TCF an industry front…preserving nature to act as a magnet for upscale adjacent development – and to support expensive environmental restrictions that would harm their less-well-capitalized competitors instead of themselves.”
It is likely that Sonoran, through their sister organization the Rincon Institute, of which Propst is Executive Director, is also engaged in these kinds of activities around Tucson, Arizona. Their association with a powerful Arizona developer, penetration into certain levels of government approval and decision making, and seemingly benign facade, raise questions as to Sonoran’s true intents and purposes, and has caused some Arizona developers and property rights advocates to caution that, in their estimation, Sonoran should not be trusted.
Standards: Making Them Useful and Workable for the Education Enterprise (May 1997) will be of interest to those following “standards” issues — e.g., Common Core State Standards Initiative which supports the federal School-to-Work workforce development plans from the 90’s. See attached pdf or access online < http://www2.ed.gov/PDFDocs/standards.pdf >.
Note: All but 10 states are included in “ATTACHMENT D — STATE CAREER MAJORS/CLUSTERS” of this paper.
Excerpt from the Executive Summary (emphasis added; bracketed [ ] info added by me.):
This white paper focuses on “taking stock” of how standards, most specifically how skill standards, are being used within the education enterprise . . . . It builds upon lessons learned over the past five years from 22 national pilot projects [funded by the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education] charged with the development of skill standards. Lessons are drawn from states’ efforts to build standards into education reform efforts, with a special emphasis on the systemic change efforts promulgated under the School-To-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA) of 1994.
Explicit criteria in the STWOA drives home the need for state and publicly funded education institutions to adapt and adopt nationally validated skill standards for multiple purposes; such as, development of integrated curriculum, constructing career pathways information systems, engaging the private sector in STW efforts, and issuing certificates of competencies. This initiative builds upon prior work undertaken by state vocational education agencies that have developed an array of industry based standards materials.
Excerpt from the Definitions section (emphasis added)
. . . These definitions were developed after an extensive review of literature as well as information gleaned from the 22 national skill standards pilot projects.
Two basic types of standards cut across industry and academic circles.
— Content standards refer to what we expect learners to know and be able to perform.
— Performance standards indicate levels of achievement, or competency within a content area (e.g., advanced, proficient, and basic). Performance standards can be set either for an individual content standard or across groups of content standards.
There are several different types of skill standards one building upon the other: core academic, generic workplace readiness, industry core, occupational family, and occupational or job specific.
— Core academic standards cover those subject matter areas such as mathematics, language arts, and science that are necessary for functioning as a member of society and help develop career-related skills.
— Generic workplace readiness standards cover those skills and qualities that workers must have to learn and adapt to the demands of any job. These include personal attributes, interpersonal skills, thinking and problem-solving, communication, and use of technology. (SCANS,1991; CCSSO Workplace Readiness Assessment Consortium, 1993)
— Industry core standards apply to most of the occupations in a particular industry. . . .
— Occupational family standards specify the knowledge and skills that are common to a related set of occupations or functions within an industry or across industries.
— Occupational or job specific standards address the skill expectations of a specific occupation. This is the level at which many existing career-preparation programs and certification systems are focusing.
The reality is there is a search is underway for some common definitions to use in a standards-driven system. The following attempts to capture the essential ingredients of generally understood usage. Some of the definitions are specific wording developed by a particular organization, while others are a synthesis of one or more sources:
— Content Standards specify the content knowledge and skills all students will know and be able to do upon completing particular grades or courses in K-12 education; the content standards state clearly the knowledge and skills to be learned, and at what developmental level content is to be presented. In some states, content standards are a separate state document; in others, they are published in a curriculum framework (CCSSO,1996).
— Curriculum Alignment links academic and vocational curricula so that course content and instruction dovetail across and/or within subject areas. Curriculum alignment may take two forms: horizontal alignment, when teachers within a specific grade level coordinate instruction across disciplines, and vertical alignment, when subjects are connected across grade levels, cumulatively, to build comprehensive, increasingly complex instructional programs (National School-to-Work Office,1996).
— Curriculum Framework is a document published by a state education agency or state board of education that generally includes desired subject content or standards for a core academic subject in K-12 education and is written by a team of content experts, state agency personnel, and local educators. A state framework often serves as a bridge between national profession standards and local curriculum and instructional strategies. It may address areas of pedagogy, classroom examples and vignettes, strategies toward equity, important education policies, and school conditions. The framework document may also refer educators to other materials and resources to support local efforts (CCSSO,1996).
— Curriculum Standards include industry validated knowledge, skills, and abilities that a student is expected to learn in a program of study or specific course. The materials contained in the standards can be a synthesis of task analyses derived from any of the five types of skill standards (core academic, generic workplace readiness, industry core, occupational family, and occupational (or job) specific).1
— Integrated Curriculum Standards integrates occupational/industry related material with academic standards that may or may not be validated at the worksite.2
— Integrated Academic and Vocational Education Program develops and delivers a curriculum based on three components: academic, technical, and personal qualities delivered in an applied, contextual manner (MERC,1997).
— On-demand assessment, are activities administered on specific dates under secure conditions (WestEd,1995).
— Program Standards are established by national trade, professional associations or certification organizations for the purpose of recognizing education or training institutions. The standards can include references to instructional services, facilities, qualification of staff, equipment, and administrative processes.
— Portfolio is a collection of evidence that shows important work undertaken by a student, in the case of career-related education it would include examples of career-technical and academic knowledge and skills learned by the student. It serves as a vehicle for organizing and presenting students’ work for assessment purposes, as well as, to prospective employers or advanced training institutions (WestEd,1995).
— Scenarios are examples of issues and problems found in worksites and validated by industry representatives. . . . The scenarios can be used in a variety of ways by education and training providers such as becoming a part of the instructional process as well as being used with on-demand assessments.
A review of the standards developed through 22 national occupational skill standards pilot projects funded by the Departments of Education and Labor focused on how they are being used in education and how to improve their use. Although occupational clusters have long played a role in education, the mix of clusters and the use of them varies widely across states. Academic-vocational integration, another standards-related issue, is hindered by lack of a framework of information about career pathways and career progression. Foundation skills identified by the Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills have been supported by the pilot projects. The education enterprise needs to incorporate these skills throughout the learning process. There is a need for a support system to help translate industry and occupation standards into useful material for curriculum and instruction. Elements of such a system include the following: relevant assessment and testing tools, a program approval or accreditation process, staff and leadership development, information systems and services, and national and state networks. Among the recommendations for the National Skill Standards Board are the following: support expansion of current consortia/networks; promote cross-agency, standards-driven staff development; infuse standards into career guidance materials; enhance information collection; develop a roadmap to clarify equivalencies between workplace requirements and education needed; and use International Standards Organization processes for quality assurance standards. (KC)
Keywords: Accreditation (Institutions), Career Education, Evaluation Methods, Industry, Information Systems, Integrated Curriculum, Job Skills, National Standards, Networks, Occupational Clusters, Occupational Information, Postsecondary Education, Program Effectiveness, Role of Education, Secondary Education, Staff Development
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