Prescott Bush, Operation Paperclip, Nazis in America, the Fourth Reich
The Reichstag Fire
Understanding the Holocaust
Not See’s and Nazis: Psychological Denial about 9/11 complicity
Bush – Bin Laden connections
February 9, 2002 Germans and the American War http://www.davidcogswell.com/Political/GermansWar.html
“We love Americans. If it weren’t for the Americans many of us would not be here. But you have to understand that this war means something very different to Germans. We love Americans. We just don’t love your fuhrer.”
“To live in this process is absolutely not to be able to notice it… Each step was so small, so inconsequential, so well explained or, on occasion, ‘regretted,’ that, unless one were detached from the whole process from the beginning… one no more saw it developing from day to day than a farmer in his field sees the corn growing. One day it is over his head.”
-Milton Mayer, “They Thought They Were Free”
Nazis in America
http://www.maebrussell.com – Researcher Mae Brussell’s website (she died in late 1980s), who documented the Nazi influence in Cold War america (note: Ms. Brussell’s writing on this site is recommended, but the newer material, posted long after her passing, includes promotion of the “no plane” false claims about 9/11)
The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination
Evidence of link between Nazis still in operation after World War II to the still unsolved murder of John F. Kennedy
by Mae Brussell
(from the short-lived Larry Flynt publication The Rebel, Nov. 22, 1983)
a websearch on “Operation Paperclip” and Reinhard Gehlen (Nazi spy chief who helped set up the CIA) will retrieve lots of articles about programs to import Nazi war criminals into the United States after World War II – a war that the Germans lost, but the Nazis merely changed their location and tactics
Sieg Heil: the Bush-Rove-Schwarzenegger Nazi Nexus and the destabilization of California
by Bob Fitrakis and Harvey Wasserman October 6, 2003
Prescott Bush (W’s grandfather) and the Nazis
“Bush – Nazi Dealings Continued Until 1951” – Federal Documents
By John Buchanan and Stacey Michael
from The New Hampshire Gazette Vol. 248, No. 3, November 7, 2003
RFA37 — How the United States Lost the Second World War
RADIO FREE AMERICA – An Archive Series Produced by David Emory
Considered by Mr. Emory to be his best work, this massive archive program merits serious consideration as the most revealing explanation of the Cold War to date. The history of intellectual endeavor teaches that prevailing theories in the academic disciplines may be disproved and supplanted in time. Taken in combination with its immediate predecessor RFA program number 36, this work documents the working hypothesis that during the Cold War, German fascism and the Third Reich did not disappear as is commonly believed but rather survived underground and achieved a very real political and economic victory over the Allies.
In the aftermath of World War I, the German Nazis learned that anti-communism could be used to achieve strategic leverage over Germany’s prospective enemies such as Great Britain and the United States. The Third Reich utilized this stratagem to establish Fifth Column movements in countries they had targeted for conquest. Those movements were composed largely of sympathizers who viewed the Third Reich as a bulwark against communism. The Third Reich sought to escape the full consequences of military defeat in World War II by playing the anti-communist card again.
When it became clear that the armies of the Third Reich were going to be defeated, it opened secret negotiations with representatives from the Western Allies. Representatives on both sides belonged to the transatlantic financial and industrial fraternity that had actively supported fascism (see Miscellaneous program numbers 11, 42 and RFA program numbers 1,2 and 10). The thrust of these negotiations was the establishment of The Christian West. Viewed by the Nazis as a vehicle for surviving military defeat, “The Christian West” involved a Hitler-less Reich joining with the U.S., Britain, France and other European nations in a transatlantic, pan-European anti-Soviet alliance. In fact, The Christian West became a reality only after the cessation of hostilities.
The de-Nazification of Germany was aborted. Although a few of the more obvious and obnoxious elements of Nazism were removed, Nazis were returned to power at virtually every level and in almost every capacity in the Federal Republic of Germany. A Hilter-less Reich then was incorporated into the anti-Soviet alliance the Third Reich’s leaders had envisioned — NATO.
One of the central elements in RFA 37, the Reinhard Gehlen spy organization functioned as a Trojan Horse vis-a-vis the United States. By deliberately exaggerating Soviet intentions and capabilities in order to alarm the United States, the Gehlen organization greatly exacerbated cold-war tensions and manipulated them to Germany’s advantage.
Perhaps the most important effect of the Gehlen organization was to introduce “rollback” or “liberation theory” into American strategic thinking. Rollback was a political warfare and covert operation strategy which had its genesis in the Third Reich Ostministerium headed by Alfred Rosenberg. This strategy entailed enlisting the aid of dissident Soviet ethnic minorities to overthrow the Soviet Union. In return, these minorities and their respective republics were to be granted nominal independence while serving as satellite states of “Greater Germany.”
In its American incarnation, liberation theory called for “rolling back” communism out of Eastern Europe and the break-up of the Soviet Union into its constituent ethnic Republics. Lip-service was given to initiating democracy in the “liberated” countries. Liberation theory was projected into mainstream American political consciousness through the Crusade for Freedom. This enormous CIA domestic media campaign not only established liberation theory as a dominant element in American strategic thinking but also projected European fascists associated with the Gehlen milieu into positions of prominence within the powerful ethnic voting blocks in America.
The Gehlen imports combined with domestic reactionary elements to form a powerful fascistic and ultimately triumphant political engine referred to in RFA 37, as the “rollback” or “liberation milieu.”
RFA 37 traces the evolution of this milieu and its influence on international and domestic political affairs. The liberation milieu cemented its triumph in American politics through the assassination of President Kennedy. The program highlights the roles of Gehlen-related elements and intelligence agents associated with the petroleum industry in the JFK assassination. Particular emphasis is on George Bush’s connections to this milieu as well as the milieu’s relationship to the defense industry, military intelligence and corporate America.
RFA 37 analyzes the Reagan and Bush administrations as the realization of the goals of liberation theory as well as the fulfillment of National Security Counsel Number 68. NSC 68 was the blueprint for U.S. strategy during the Cold War. Heavily influenced by the work of the Gehlen organization, NSC 68 called for the destabilization of the U.S.S.R. through a massive military buildup by the U.S. The strategy sought to bankrupt the Soviet economy through an arms race and to promote agitation among the dissident Soviet ethnic groups by Gehlen-related intelligence elements. In addition, the document called for an accompanying propaganda blitz in the United States to convince the American people to support the military buildup as well as the suppression of political dissidents.
The Reagan and Bush administrations instituted the principles of NSC 68 and accomplished the aims of liberation theory. The realization of those goals also did enormous damage to the United States. The cost of bankrupting the Soviet Union, turned the United States into the world’s biggest debtor nation, severely damaged its infrastructure and crippled its competitive economic advantage internationally. In addition, the United States badly compromised its democratic institutions during the Cold War, possibly beyond repair.
RFA 37 hypothesizes that the realization of liberation theory primarily benefited Germany rather than the United States. Indeed, the recovery of Germany’s “lost territories” was the goal of Gehlen’s alliance with the western powers and was the raison d’etre for the Vertviebene groups. Founded by the SS and funded by the German government, the Vertriebene groups were part of the liberation milieu described above. Their activity has increased dramatically since the end of the Cold War. The BND, the current German government intelligence service and the final incarnation of the Gehlen organization, has been extremely active in the newly “liberated” territories where it has worked hand in glove with major German corporations and the various Nazi parties of Germany to realize Hitler’s goal of a “greater Germany.”
“Since Sept. 11, the kinds of words that used to be coupled in the same sentence with ‘Third Reich,’ ‘Gulag’ and ‘Pinochet’ have actually creeped into the mouths of mainstream talking heads. Some in Congress are beginning to wake up and smell the coffee, and what’s in the air isn’t too fresh. They see a growing police state being implemented. While people may fear a downward spiral towards brown-shirts and book burnings, the truth is that an American police state may show up in a Brooks Brothers suit with an impressive law degree. What really galls is how the Bush administration has treated the American people like children. Anybody feeling the water temperature rising? Water or coffee may not be the right comparison. Maybe it’s smoke. Maybe it’s the smoke of the Reichstag burning.”
— Ellen Ratner, White House correspondent and bureau chief for the Talk Radio News service, Washington bureau chief and political editor for Talkers Magazine, Republican Fox News analyst, “It can’t happen here – or can it?” October 2001
The “imperial ambition” of the current power holders, as it is frankly called, has aroused shudders throughout the world, including the mainstream of the establishment at home. Elsewhere, of course, the reactions are far more fearful, particularly among the traditional victims. They know too much history, the hard way, to be comforted by exalted rhetoric. They have heard enough of that over the centuries as they were being beaten by the club called “civilization.” Just a few days ago, the head of the non-aligned movement, which includes the governments of most of the world’s population, described the Bush administration as more aggressive than Hitler. He happens to be very pro-American, and right in the middle of Washington’s international economic projects. And there is little doubt that he speaks for many of the traditional victims, and by now even for many of their traditional oppressors.
“Deep Concerns,” by Noam Chomsky, March 20, 2003 http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=40&ItemID=3293
The Fourth Reich
The CIA’s Secret Army
Because of past scandals, the agency had largely dropped its paramilitary operations. But the war on terrorism has brought it back into the business
By DOUGLAS WALLER
Time magazine – Sunday, Jan. 26, 2003
… Today it does, and the sog’s capacities are growing. Its maritime branch has speedboats to carry commandos to shore, and the agency can rent cargo ships through its front companies to transport larger equipment. The air arm, which Pentagon officials have nicknamed the Waffen CIA, has small passenger jets on alert to fly paramilitary operatives anywhere in the world on two hours’ notice. Other cargo planes, reminiscent of the Air America fleet that the agency had in Vietnam, can drop supplies to replenish teams in remote locations. For areas like Afghanistan and Central Asia, where a Russian-made helicopter stands out less, the agency uses the large inventory of Soviet-era aircraft that the Pentagon captured in previous conflicts or bought on the black market.
The “Waffen SS” was the military department of the SS, Hitler’s secret police. The disclosure that the Pentagon calls part of the CIA the “Waffen CIA” is one of the more disturbing revelations since 9/11.
Published on Tuesday, April 8, 2003 by The Oregonian
It Can’t Happen Here — Or Can It?
by Richard L. Clinton
Two old friends of mine — a Jewish couple in their 80s, both retired university professors who fled Nazi Germany in the late 1930s and eventually became U.S. citizens — made a stunning remark to me a few months ago: “You know, all our lives we have blamed our parents and our parents’ generation for allowing Hitler to gain control. Now we’re beginning to see how powerless they must have felt to stop what was happening all around them.”
My friends’ melancholy comment came back to me and a palpable chill ran down my spine when I read about the Gestapo-style arrest of U.S. citizen Maher “Mike” Hawash. Two weeks ago, police took the 38-year-old Intel software contractor from his Hillsboro home and put him in solitary confinement (according to his wife) in a federal prison. No charges have been filed against him, and his attorneys reportedly are forbidden to discuss the case. What is happening to our country?
I already had heard on National Public Radio a New Jersey attorney’s account of having been appointed as counsel for Jose Padilla, the U.S. citizen arrested in Chicago nearly a year ago for supposedly planning to concoct a “dirty bomb” — radioactive materials packed around a conventional explosive. After only one or two brief meetings, she was abruptly denied access to her client, who was transferred to a brig somewhere in South Carolina, where he remains in solitary confinement to this day, unindicted for any crime and unable to see or speak with his lawyer. Can this really be happening in the United States?
A few weeks ago a professor in the University of Idaho School of Law reported that FBI agents staged a predawn raid — in full SWAT team regalia — on the apartment of a Saudi doctoral candidate in computer science, dragging him away from his terrified wife and children and astonished neighbors.
The Washington Post has reported that around the country “at least 44 people” were being held, like Mike Hawash, under the same distorted and unprecedented interpretation of the “material witness” law, designed for grand jury participants. This is clearly an outright suspension of habeas corpus, the 700-year-old cornerstone of individual civil rights in Western jurisprudence, which protects us from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment.
The “war on terrorism” — the surrogate for the Cold War so desperately needed by the military-industrial complex to justify its hugely disproportionate bite out of the federal budget — has, of course, served as the oh-so-convenient excuse for the erosion of our freedoms. And the contemptible timidity of our elected representatives, who rushed to pass the ill-named and patently unconstitutional U.S. Patriot Act unread and undebated, helped to provide a fig leaf of legality for this abridgement of our civil liberties.
Never has the plaintive confession of Pastor Martin Niemoeller sounded so relevant: “They came first for the Communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. . . . Then they came for me, and by that time, nobody was left to speak up.”
Richard L. Clinton is a political science professor at Oregon State University. E-mail: richard.clinton @ orst.edu
Copyright 2003 Oregon Live
Primo Levi’s autobiography “Survival in Auschwitz” states that the camps were a giant social experiment. It is extremely well documented that much of the Nazis’ experimental results were given to the US military and intelligence agencies, and it would be naive to assume that they didn’t comb through the data to see what they could learn for their own purposes.
Nazi Hydra in America
Prescott Bush (W’s grandfather) and the Nazis
Heir to the Holocaust
Prescott Bush, 1.3 million dollars, and Auschwitz:
How the Bush Family Wealth is Linked to the Jewish Holocaust
TRIUMPHS, TROUBLES SHAPE GENERATIONS
PRESCOTT BUSH PAVED MODERATE
PATH FOR SON AND GRANDSON;
WOUNDED BY FRIEND’S BETRAYAL,
HE PUT HIGH PRICE ON LOYALTY
Page: A1 Section: National/Foreign
AN AMERICAN DYNASTY
Prescott Bush was surely aghast at a sensational article the New York Herald Tribune splashed on its front page in July 1942. “Hitler’s Angel Has 3 Million in US Bank,”read the headline above a story reporting that Adolf Hitler’s financier had stowed the fortune in Union Banking Corp., possibly to be held for “Nazi bigwigs.”Bush knew all about the New York bank: He was one of its seven directors. If the Nazi tie became known, it would be a potential “embarrassment,”Bush and his partners at Brown Brothers Harriman worried, explaining to government regulators that their position was merely an unpaid courtesy for a client. The situation grew more serious when the government seized Union’s assets under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the sort of action that could have ruined Bush’s political dreams.
Sarasota Herald-Tribune 11/11/2000
John Loftus, former US Justice Dept. Nazi War Crimes investigator and President of the Florida Holocaust Museum, is quoted as saying:
“The Bush family fortune came from the Third Reich.”
Local TV News: Now Part of Sales?
By Howard Kurtz
Washington Post Staff Writer
Monday, November 3, 2003; Page C01
Some liberal critics are accusing the mainstream media of refusing to write about the Bush family’s Nazi connection.
Many media outlets, including The Washington Post, have “repeatedly declined to investigate” the matter, writes John Buchanan of the New Hampshire Gazette, the first to report on newly declassified government documents.
The Associated Press picked up the story that Prescott Bush, the president’s grandfather, was a director of a New York bank seized by federal authorities over ties to a German industrialist who helped finance Adolf Hitler’s rise.
“The documents do not show any evidence Bush directly aided that effort,” the AP reports.
Buchanan says he called journalists at Newsweek, Time, the Wall Street Journal and other outlets — in one case threatening to give a columnist’s name to Congress for refusing to report on the story — but that they joined the “cover-up.”
Is this an interesting historical footnote that deserves wider exposure? Probably. But should the president be tarred with what the late senator, who’s been dead for three decades, did or failed to do before World War II?
“Imputing Nazi sympathies to the president or his family ought to be beneath his adversaries,” writes Bush critic Joe Conason in the New York Observer.
Nazis in the attic Did the Bush Family, including the ex-President, along with GM & Ford help the Nazis before and after WWII?
by Randy Davis (5-24-00)
Documented Evidence of a Secret Business and Political Alliance Between the U.S. “Establishment” and the Nazis, Before, During and After World War II, up to the Present.
“What would have happened if millions of American and British people, struggling with coupons and lines at the gas stations, had learned that in 1942 Standard Oil of New Jersey [part of the Rockefeller empire] managers shipped the enemy’s fuel through neutral Switzerland and that the enemy was shipping Allied fuel? Suppose the public had discovered that the Chase Bank in Nazi-occupied Paris after Pearl Harbor was doing millions of dollars’ worth of business with the enemy with the full knowledge of the head office in Manhattan [the Rockefeller family among others?] Or that Ford trucks were being built for the German occupation troops in France with authorization from Dearborn, Michigan? Or that Colonel Sosthenes Behn, the head of the international American telephone conglomerate ITT, flew from New York to Madrid to Berne during the war to help improve Hitler’s communications systems and improve the robot bombs that devastated London? Or that ITT built the FockeWulfs that dropped bombs on British and American troops? Or that crucial ball bearings were shipped to Nazi-associated customers in Latin America with the collusion of the vice-chairman of the U.S. War Production Board in partnership with Goering’s cousin in Philadelphia when American forces were desperately short of them? Or that such arrangements were known about in Washington and either sanctioned or deliberately ignored?”
Charles Higham, researcher, about U.S.-Nazi collaboration during WWII
The Bushes and Hitler’s Appeasement
By Robert Parry
Sunday 18 May 2008
The irony of George W. Bush going before the Knesset and mocking the late Sen. William Borah for expressing surprise at Adolf Hitler’s 1939 invasion of Poland is that Bush’s own family played a much bigger role assisting the Nazis.
If Borah, an isolationist Republican from Idaho, sounded naive saying “Lord, if only I could have talked to Hitler, all of this might have been avoided,” then what should be said about Bush’s grandfather and other members of his family providing banking and industrial assistance to the Nazis as they built their war machine in the 1930s?
The archival evidence is now clear that Prescott Bush, the president’s grandfather, was a director and shareholder of companies that profited from and collaborated with key financial backers of Nazi Germany.
That business relationship continued after Hitler invaded Poland in 1939 and even after Germany declared war on the United States following Japan’s bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941. It stopped only when the U.S. government seized assets of Bush-connected companies in late 1942 under the “Trading with the Enemy Act.”
So, perhaps instead of holding up Sen. Borah to ridicule, Bush might have acknowledged in his May 15 speech that his forebears also were blind to the dangers of Hitler.
Bush might have noted that his family’s wealth, which fueled his own political rise, was partly derived from Nazi collaboration and possibly from slave labor provided by Auschwitz and other concentration camps.
A more honest speech before the Knesset – on the 60th anniversary of Israel’s founding – might have contained an apology to the Jewish people from a leading son of the Bush family for letting its greed contribute to Nazi power and to the horrors of the Holocaust. Instead, there was just the jab at Sen. Borah, who died in 1940.
President Bush apparently saw no reason to remind the world of a dark chapter from the family history. After all, those ugly facts mostly disappeared from public consciousness soon after World War II.
Protected by layers of well-connected friends, Prescott Bush brushed aside the Nazi scandal and won a U.S. Senate seat from Connecticut, which enabled him to start laying the foundation for the family’s political dynasty.
In recent years, however, the archival records from the pre-war era have been assembled, drawing from the Harriman family papers at the Library of Congress, documents at the National Archives, and records from war-crimes trials after Germany’s surrender.
Managers for the Powerful
One can trace the origins of this story back more than a century to the emergence of Samuel Bush, George W. Bush’s great-grandfather, as a key manager for a set of powerful American business families, including the Rockefellers and the Harrimans. [See Consortiumnews.com’s “Bush Family Chronicles: The Patriarchs.”]
That chapter took an important turn in 1919 when investment banker George Herbert Walker teamed up with Averell Harriman, scion to a railroad fortune, to found a new investment banking firm, W.A. Harriman Company.
The Harriman firm was backed by the Rockefellers’ National City Bank and the Morgan family’s Guaranty Trust. The English-educated Walker assisted in assembling the Harriman family’s overseas business investments.
In 1921, Walker’s favorite daughter, Dorothy, married Samuel Bush’s son Prescott, a Yale graduate and a member of the school’s exclusive Skull and Bones society. Handsome and athletic, admired for his golf and tennis skills, Prescott Bush was a young man with the easy grace of someone born into the comfortable yet competitive world of upper-crust contacts.
Three years later, Dorothy gave birth to George Herbert Walker Bush in Milton, Massachusetts.
Lifted by the financial boom of the 1920s, Prescott and Dorothy Bush were on the rise. By 1926, George Herbert Walker had brought his son-in-law in on a piece of the Harriman action, hiring him as a vice president in the Harriman banking firm.
By the mid-Thirties, Prescott Bush had become a managing partner at the merged firm of Brown Brothers Harriman. The archival records also show that Brown Brothers Harriman served as the U.S. financial service arm for German industrialist Fritz Thyssen, an early funder of the Nazi Party.
Thyssen, an admirer of Adolf Hitler since the 1920s, joined the Nazi Party in 1931 when it was still a fringe organization. He helped bail the struggling party out with financial help, even providing its headquarters building in Munich.
Meanwhile, Averell Harriman had launched the Hamburg-Amerika line of steamships to facilitate the bank’s dealings with Germany, and made Prescott Bush a director. The ships delivered fuel, steel, coal, gold and money to Germany as Hitler was consolidating his power and building his war machine.
Other evidence shows that Prescott Bush served as the director of the Union Banking Corp. of New York, which represented Thyssen’s interests in the United States and was owned by a Thyssen-controlled bank in the Netherlands.
As a steel magnate, Thyssen was amassing a fortune as Hitler rearmed Germany. Documents also linked Bush to Thyssen’s Consolidated Silesian Steel Company, which was based in mineral-rich Silesia on the German-Polish border and exploited slave labor from Nazi concentration camps, including Auschwitz. But records at the National Archives do not spell out exactly when Bush’s connection ended or what he knew about the business details.
In 1941, Thyssen had a falling out with Hitler and fled to France where he was captured. Much of Thyssen’s empire went under the direct control of the Nazis, but even that did not shatter the business ties that existed with Prescott Bush and Harriman’s bank.
It wasn’t until August 1942 that newspaper stories disclosed the secretive ties between Union Banking Corp. and Nazi Germany.
After an investigation, the U.S. government seized the property of the Hamburg-Amerika line and moved against affiliates of the Union Banking Corp. In November 1942, the government seized the assets of the Silesian-American Corp. [For more details, see an investigative report by the U.K. Guardian, Sept. 25, 2004.]
No Kiss of Death
For most public figures, allegations of trading with the enemy would have been a political kiss of death, but the disclosures barely left a lipstick smudge on Averell Harriman, Prescott Bush and other business associates implicated in the Nazi business dealings.
“Politically, the significance of these dealings – the great surprise – is that none of it seemed to matter much over the next decade or so,” wrote Kevin Phillips in American Dynasty.
“A few questions would be raised, but Democrat Averell Harriman would not be stopped from becoming federal mutual security administrator in 1951 or winning election as governor of New York in 1954. Nor would Republican Prescott Bush (who was elected senator from Connecticut in 1952) and his presidential descendants be hurt in any of their future elections.”
Indeed, the quick dissipation of the Nazi financial scandal was only a portent of the Bush family’s future. Unlike politicians of lower classes, the Bushes seemed to travel in a bubble impervious to accusations of impropriety, since the Eastern Establishment doesn’t like to think badly of its own. [For details, see Robert Parry’s Secrecy & Privilege.]
To this day – as President Bush showed by mocking the long-forgotten Sen. Borah and then wielding the Nazi “appeasement” club against Barack Obama and other Democrats – the assumption remains that the bubble will continue to protect the Bush family name.
However, the evidence from dusty archives suggests that the Bush family went way beyond appeasement of Adolf Hitler to aiding and abetting the Nazis.
Robert Parry broke many of the Iran-Contra stories in the 1980s for the Associated Press and Newsweek. His latest book, “Neck Deep: The Disastrous Presidency of George W. Bush”, was written with two of his sons, Sam and Nat, and can be ordered at neckdeepbook.com. His two previous books, “Secrecy & Privilege: The Rise of the Bush Dynasty from Watergate to Iraq” and “Lost History: Contras, Cocaine, the Press & ‘Project Truth'” are also available there
FRIDAY, MAY 16, 2008
BUSH – HITLER TIMELINE
Compiled by the Progressive Review
WA Harriman establishes Union Banking Corp. in partnership with the German industrialist Fritz Thyssen, who will be a major donor to the Nazi Party.
CONSORTIUM NEWS – Prescott Bush was a fanatical opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt. There were even rumors that Bush tried to encourage a military coup against Roosevelt after his election as President in 1933. But the evidence – while intriguing – has never been conclusive.
Similar secrecy and uncertainty surrounded the intricate web of ownership and control of Harriman’s Union Banking Corp., which Prescott Bush administered in collaboration with backers of Germany’s Nazi Party.
As a rising star at the Harriman firm, Prescott Bush became a director (effectively in charge) of Harriman’s UBC, which had a financial relationship with German industrialist Fritz Thyssen, an early supporter of Adolf Hitler.
Brown Brothers Harriman supplied Thyssen with financing and other banking services that allowed the Nazis to build up their war machine. After Thyssen broke with Hitler in 1939, Thyssen’s banking empire came under control of the Nazi government, with Prescott Bush continuing as a behind-the-scenes force in the relationship.
Prescott Bush’s investment firm sets up deal for the Luftwaffe so it can obtain tetraethyl lead.
NEW STATESMAN, APRIL 15, 2002 – In 1926, Averill Harriman welcomed a familiar name into his Wall Street firm (W A Harriman and Co) as senior partner – Prescott Bush, father to one American president and grandfather to another. The association was to end simultaneously in fabulous wealth and temporary ignominy – at the height of the Second World War, in 1942, the New York Herald Tribune reported that the Union Banking Corporation, of which Prescott Bush was a director and E Roland Harriman a 99 per cent shareholder, was holding a small fortune under the orders of Adolf Hitler’s financier. Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, all of Union Banking Corporation’s capital stock was seized.
INDYMEDIA, ISRAEL – On October 20, 1942, the U.S. government had had enough of Prescott Bush and his Nazi business arrangements with Thyssen. Over the summer, The New York Tribune had exposed Bush and Thyssen, whom the Tribune dubbed “Hitler’s Angel.” When the US government saw UBC’s books, they found out that Bush’s bank and its shareholders “are held for the benefit of . . . members of the Thyssen family, [and] is property of nationals . . . of a designated enemy country.” . . .
On November 17, 1942, The US government also took over the Silesian American Corporation, but did not prosecute Bush . . . The companies were allowed to operate within the Government Alien Property custodian office with a catch – no aiding the Nazis. In 1943, while still owning his stock, Prescott Bush resigned from UBC and even helped raise money for dozens of war-related causes as chairman of the National War Fund.
After the war, the Dutch government began investigating the whereabouts of some jewelry of the Dutch royal family that was stolen by the Nazis. They started looking into books of the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart. When they discovered the transaction papers of the Silesian American Corporation, they began asking the bank manager H.J. Kounhoven a lot of questions. Kouwenhoven was shocked at the discovery and soon traveled to New York to inform Prescott Bush. According to Dutch intelligence, Kouwenhoven met with Prescott soon after Christmas, 1947. Two weeks later, Kouwenhoven apparently died of a heart attack.
By 1948, Fritz Thyssen’s life was in ruins. After being jailed by the Nazis, he was jailed by the Allies and interrogated extensively, but not completely, by US investigators. Thyssen and Flick were ordered to pay reparations and served time in prison for their atrocious crimes against humanity. . .
When Thyssen died, the Alien Property Custodian released the assets of the Union Banking Corporation to Brown Brothers Harriman. The remaining stockholders cashed in their stocks and quietly liquidated the rest of UBC’s blood money.
Prescott Bush received $1.5 million for his share in UBC. That money enabled Bush to help his son, George Herbert Walker Bush, to set up his first royalty firm, Overby Development Company, that same year. It was also helpful when Prescott Bush left the business world to enter the public arena in 1952 with a successful senatorial campaign in Connecticut. On October 8th, 1972, Prescott Bush died of cancer. . .
In 1980, when George H.W. Bush was elected vice president, he placed his father’s family inherence in a blind trust. The trust was managed by his old friend and quail hunting partner, William “Stamps” Farish III. Bush’s choice of Farish to manage the family wealth is quite revealing in that it demonstrates that the former president might know exactly where some of his inheritance originated. Farish’s grandfather, William Farish Jr., on March 25th, 1942, pleaded “no contest” to conspiring with Nazi Germany while president of Standard Oil in New Jersey. He was described by Senator Harry Truman in public of approaching “treason” for profiting off the Nazi war machine. Standard Oil, invested millions in IG Farben, who opened a gasoline factory within Auschwitz in 1940. The billions “Stamps” inherited had more blood on it then Bush, so the paper trail of UBC stock would be safe during his 12 years in presidential politics.
[Investigative journalist John] Loftus believes history will view Prescott Bush as harshly as Thyssen. “It is bad enough that the Bush family helped raise the money for Thyssen to give Hitler his start in the 1920s, but giving aid and comfort to the enemy in time of war is treason. The Bush bank helped the Thyssens make the Nazi steel that killed Allied solders. As bad as financing the Nazi war machine may seem, aiding and abetting the Holocaust was worse. Thyssen’s coal mines used Jewish slaves as if they were disposable chemicals. There are six million skeletons in the Thyssen family closet, and a myriad of criminal and historical questions to be answered about the Bush family’s complicity.”
SARASOTA HERALD TRIBUNE The president of the Florida Holocaust Museum said Saturday that George W. Bush’s grandfather derived a portion of his personal fortune through his affiliation with a Nazi-controlled bank. John Loftus, a former prosecutor in the Justice Department’s Nazi War Crimes Unit, said his research found that Bush’s grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a principal in the Union Banking Corp. in Manhattan in the late 1930s and the 1940s. Leading Nazi industrialists secretly owned the bank at that time, Loftus said, and were moving money into it through a second bank in Holland even after the United States declared war on Germany. The bank was liquidated in 1951, Loftus said, and Bush’s grandfather and great-grandfather received $1.5 million from the bank as part of that dissolution . . . Loftus pointed out that the Bush family would not be the only American political dynasty to have ties to the “wrong side of World War II.” The Rockefellers had financial connections to Nazi Germany, he said. Loftus also reminded his audience that John F. Kennedy’s father, an avowed isolationist and former ambassador to Great Britain, profited during the 1930s and ’40s from Nazi stocks that he owned. “No one today blames the Democrats because Jack Kennedy’s father bought Nazi stocks,” Loftus said. Still, he said, it is important to understand these historical connections for what they tell us about politics today. The World War II experience points out how easy it was then — and remains today — to hide money in multinational funds.
Goering Up to Leave the Country
by Harley Sorensen, San Francisco Chronicle
Monday, August 19, 2002
Hermann Goering, onetime president of the Reichstag, was commander of the German air force during World War II.
Perhaps no one alive at the end of the war understood manipulation of a nation as well as Goering.
Arrested at the close of hostilities, he was put on trial at Nuremberg as a war criminal. Sentenced to death, he committed suicide hours before his scheduled execution. Here, according to several Internet sources, is what Goering had to say in Nuremburg about going to war:
“Why, of course the people don’t want war … but, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament or a communist dictatorship … voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.”
One of my regular readers believes our democracy is being dragged into an ever-expanding series of wars by corrupt leaders, specifically the Axis of Idiocy: Bush, Rumsfeld and Ashcroft. He is fed up.
He feels, as the character Howard Beale felt in the 1976 movie “Network,” “as mad as hell.” And, like Howard, he’s “not going to take this anymore.”
He’s making plans to leave the country.
He now hates America, he says.
That’s hard for me to believe. Oh, I believe it, all right, but it’s hard to believe. Most of us, no matter how critical we might be of the direction our leaders move us, continue to love our country.
In any case, this reader has written an essay titled “Why I Hate America.” Because it reflects the despair many of us feel, I’d like to quote from it. (I’ve omitted the writer’s name to protect him from retaliation.)
“I’ve been asking myself why I hate America, why the anger rises up when I hear words about America’s triumph over terrorism. Why am I so perverse, when America is doing so much good and is being successful in making the world a better place?
“When the news media and solemn politicians say that we must stand united, bless America and support its wars, why do I feel just the opposite? Why do I feel unpatriotic, cynical and disgusted with this country?”
Then he goes on to say he’s not mad at the beauty of America, the “‘rocks and rills … woods and templed hills.'” He’s disgusted, rather, with the attitude of Americans.
“If one can believe the mass media, civic leaders, religious leaders and politicians, the overriding attitude Americans have about America is that it is the best place in the world, with superior citizens, superior leadership and superior morality.
“In and of itself, this arrogance, bragging and smugness would not seem so hateful, except that it is based on falsehood and deception. It is based on the deprivation and diminution of people in places that are not the U.S.A.
“Arrogance and bragging are not in themselves major hateful qualities, but when they are coupled with cruelty, hypocrisy, cheating and savagery, they become almost unbearable.
“It is the glaring contradiction between the ‘greatness of America’ and the depredations and barbarity of America that leads one into despising the country in which one was born.
“Perhaps this is what many foreigners see — the lie, the ugly lie, that is so infuriating. Perhaps they see the democracy that elects [!] venal fools, the media that controls the citizens’ minds, the arrogance of the rich, the degradation of the poor, the racial hatred, the religious intolerance, the debased environment ….
“Perhaps many people in the world see, as I do, the evil hand of America that allows the cruelest, most repressive of regimes to survive if it serves the purposes of America …. Look to the recent history of Central and South America, Asia or Africa, if you do not know to what I refer. The catalog of hideous American intervention is very long.
“And what is one to think of the slaughter of innocent civilians, the looting of natural resources, the exploitation of labor, the insults and humiliations that countries that are not America or its chosen friends have to endure in the face of taunting arrogance of the superiority of American democracy, American freedom, morality, wealth and intelligence?
“And let’s talk about culture, the culture of America. The mass culture, the culture that is enjoyed by the overwhelming numbers of Americans, is of the worst degraded quality imaginable. In popular music, art (television and movies), cuisine, style and literature, we find the trashiest, lowest and most depraved is also the most popular ….
“Is it any wonder the country is awash in mind-numbing drugs of [both] illegal and legal [varieties]?
“Is it possible that a country can look into the vacuous face of George W. Bush and see greatness and goodness?”What kind of country kills thousands of innocent civilians in Afghanistan and admits to nothing, that looks the other way? What kind of country takes advantage of a national tragedy to take away citizens’ rights, give more money to the rich, spread fear throughout the land and at the same time engage in the most boastful and self-satisfying rhetoric?
“That’s what I see: lies, hatred, savagery, stupidity. Maybe that is what some other people like me see … but apparently they don’t live in America.”
The man who wrote all that is more pessimistic than I am, more pessimistic than most of us. But I can understand his feelings. We do live in a land so rife with contradictions that one has a choice of going along or going a little crazy.
Historically, America’s saving grace has been its flexibility. We’ve gone down a lot of wrong paths, but sooner or later we always seem to get it right. Or less wrong.
It’s clear to anyone not wearing blinders that we’re going down many wrong paths now. My hope is that we find our way again — that we become the people we say we are — before we fall into the abyss.
There’s hope. Just last Friday, The Chronicle had a story by Edward Epstein on the redemption of Dick Armey. Armey, majority leader of the House of Representatives, is retiring. And now that he’s on his way out, and doesn’t have to polish apples to stay in favor, he’s suddenly shown a characteristic he’s kept hidden the past 18 years: decency.
Instead of endorsing the administration’s worst excesses, he now opposes them — like the threat of war against Iraq, for example, or that creepy Operation TIPS (the plan to have citizens spy on one another).
One swallow does not a summer make, but if a chronic obstructor of the well-being of the American people can suddenly start working for the people, there might be hope for us.
In the meantime, it’s a good idea to remember the words of the Nazi, Goering: “[To get people to accept war,] all you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.”
How Bush’s grandfather helped Hitler’s rise to power
Rumours of a link between the US first family and the Nazi war machine have circulated for decades. Now the Guardian can reveal how repercussions of events that culminated in action under the Trading with the Enemy Act are still being felt by today’s president
Ben Aris in Berlin and Duncan Campbell in Washington
Saturday September 25 2004
George Bush’s grandfather, the late US senator Prescott Bush, was a director and shareholder of companies that profited from their involvement with the financial backers of Nazi Germany.
The Guardian has obtained confirmation from newly discovered files in the US National Archives that a firm of which Prescott Bush was a director was involved with the financial architects of Nazism.
His business dealings, which continued until his company’s assets were seized in 1942 under the Trading with the Enemy Act, has led more than 60 years later to a civil action for damages being brought in Germany against the Bush family by two former slave labourers at Auschwitz and to a hum of pre-election controversy.
The evidence has also prompted one former US Nazi war crimes prosecutor to argue that the late senator’s action should have been grounds for prosecution for giving aid and comfort to the enemy.
The debate over Prescott Bush’s behaviour has been bubbling under the surface for some time. There has been a steady internet chatter about the “Bush/Nazi” connection, much of it inaccurate and unfair. But the new documents, many of which were only declassified last year, show that even after America had entered the war and when there was already significant information about the Nazis’ plans and policies, he worked for and profited from companies closely involved with the very German businesses that financed Hitler’s rise to power. It has also been suggested that the money he made from these dealings helped to establish the Bush family fortune and set up its political dynasty.
Remarkably, little of Bush’s dealings with Germany has received public scrutiny, partly because of the secret status of the documentation involving him. But now the multibillion dollar legal action for damages by two Holocaust survivors against the Bush family, and the imminent publication of three books on the subject are threatening to make Prescott Bush’s business history an uncomfortable issue for his grandson, George W, as he seeks re-election.
While there is no suggestion that Prescott Bush was sympathetic to the Nazi cause, the documents reveal that the firm he worked for, Brown Brothers Harriman (BBH), acted as a US base for the German industrialist, Fritz Thyssen, who helped finance Hitler in the 1930s before falling out with him at the end of the decade. The Guardian has seen evidence that shows Bush was the director of the New York-based Union Banking Corporation (UBC) that represented Thyssen’s US interests and he continued to work for the bank after America entered the war.
Bush was also on the board of at least one of the companies that formed part of a multinational network of front companies to allow Thyssen to move assets around the world.
Thyssen owned the largest steel and coal company in Germany and grew rich from Hitler’s efforts to re-arm between the two world wars. One of the pillars in Thyssen’s international corporate web, UBC, worked exclusively for, and was owned by, a Thyssen-controlled bank in the Netherlands. More tantalising are Bush’s links to the Consolidated Silesian Steel Company (CSSC), based in mineral rich Silesia on the German-Polish border. During the war, the company made use of Nazi slave labour from the concentration camps, including Auschwitz. The ownership of CSSC changed hands several times in the 1930s, but documents from the US National Archive declassified last year link Bush to CSSC, although it is not clear if he and UBC were still involved in the company when Thyssen’s American assets were seized in 1942.
Three sets of archives spell out Prescott Bush’s involvement. All three are readily available, thanks to the efficient US archive system and a helpful and dedicated staff at both the Library of Congress in Washington and the National Archives at the University of Maryland.
The first set of files, the Harriman papers in the Library of Congress, show that Prescott Bush was a director and shareholder of a number of companies involved with Thyssen.
The second set of papers, which are in the National Archives, are contained in vesting order number 248 which records the seizure of the company assets. What these files show is that on October 20 1942 the alien property custodian seized the assets of the UBC, of which Prescott Bush was a director. Having gone through the books of the bank, further seizures were made against two affiliates, the Holland-American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation. By November, the Silesian-American Company, another of Prescott Bush’s ventures, had also been seized.
The third set of documents, also at the National Archives, are contained in the files on IG Farben, who was prosecuted for war crimes.
A report issued by the Office of Alien Property Custodian in 1942 stated of the companies that “since 1939, these (steel and mining) properties have been in possession of and have been operated by the German government and have undoubtedly been of considerable assistance to that country’s war effort”.
Prescott Bush, a 6ft 4in charmer with a rich singing voice, was the founder of the Bush political dynasty and was once considered a potential presidential candidate himself. Like his son, George, and grandson, George W, he went to Yale where he was, again like his descendants, a member of the secretive and influential Skull and Bones student society. He was an artillery captain in the first world war and married Dorothy Walker, the daughter of George Herbert Walker, in 1921.
In 1924, his father-in-law, a well-known St Louis investment banker, helped set him up in business in New York with Averill Harriman, the wealthy son of railroad magnate E H Harriman in New York, who had gone into banking.
One of the first jobs Walker gave Bush was to manage UBC. Bush was a founding member of the bank and the incorporation documents, which list him as one of seven directors, show he owned one share in UBC worth $125.
The bank was set up by Harriman and Bush’s father-in-law to provide a US bank for the Thyssens, Germany’s most powerful industrial family.
August Thyssen, the founder of the dynasty had been a major contributor to Germany’s first world war effort and in the 1920s, he and his sons Fritz and Heinrich established a network of overseas banks and companies so their assets and money could be whisked offshore if threatened again.
By the time Fritz Thyssen inherited the business empire in 1926, Germany’s economic recovery was faltering. After hearing Adolf Hitler speak, Thyssen became mesmerised by the young firebrand. He joined the Nazi party in December 1931 and admits backing Hitler in his autobiography, I Paid Hitler, when the National Socialists were still a radical fringe party. He stepped in several times to bail out the struggling party: in 1928 Thyssen had bought the Barlow Palace on Briennerstrasse, in Munich, which Hitler converted into the Brown House, the headquarters of the Nazi party. The money came from another Thyssen overseas institution, the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvarrt in Rotterdam.
By the late 1930s, Brown Brothers Harriman, which claimed to be the world’s largest private investment bank, and UBC had bought and shipped millions of dollars of gold, fuel, steel, coal and US treasury bonds to Germany, both feeding and financing Hitler’s build-up to war.
Between 1931 and 1933 UBC bought more than $8m worth of gold, of which $3m was shipped abroad. According to documents seen by the Guardian, after UBC was set up it transferred $2m to BBH accounts and between 1924 and 1940 the assets of UBC hovered around $3m, dropping to $1m only on a few occasions.
In 1941, Thyssen fled Germany after falling out with Hitler but he was captured in France and detained for the remainder of the war.
There was nothing illegal in doing business with the Thyssens throughout the 1930s and many of America’s best-known business names invested heavily in the German economic recovery. However, everything changed after Germany invaded Poland in 1939. Even then it could be argued that BBH was within its rights continuing business relations with the Thyssens until the end of 1941 as the US was still technically neutral until the attack on Pearl Harbor. The trouble started on July 30 1942 when the New York Herald-Tribune ran an article entitled “Hitler’s Angel Has $3m in US Bank”. UBC’s huge gold purchases had raised suspicions that the bank was in fact a “secret nest egg” hidden in New York for Thyssen and other Nazi bigwigs. The Alien Property Commission (APC) launched an investigation.
There is no dispute over the fact that the US government seized a string of assets controlled by BBH – including UBC and SAC – in the autumn of 1942 under the Trading with the Enemy act. What is in dispute is if Harriman, Walker and Bush did more than own these companies on paper.
Mission Accomplished: Roland Harriman, Prescott Bush, Knight Woolley and R. Lovett in 1964.
Erwin May, a treasury attache and officer for the department of investigation in the APC, was assigned to look into UBC’s business. The first fact to emerge was that E. Roland Harriman, Prescott Bush and the other directors didn’t actually own their shares in UBC but merely held them on behalf of Bank voor Handel. Strangely, no one seemed to know who owned the Rotterdam-based bank, including UBC’s president.
May wrote in his report of August 16 1941: “Union Banking Corporation, incorporated August 4 1924, is wholly owned by the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart N.V of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. My investigation has produced no evidence as to the ownership of the Dutch bank.Mr. Cornelis Lievense, president of UBC, claims no knowledge as to the ownership of the Bank voor Handel but believes it possible that Baron Heinrich Thyssen, brother of Fritz Thyssen, may own a substantial interest.”
May cleared the bank of holding a golden nest egg for the Nazi leaders but went on to describe a network of companies spreading out from UBC across Europe, America and Canada, and how money from voor Handel travelled to these companies through UBC.
By September May had traced the origins of the non-American board members and found that Dutchman HJ Kouwenhoven – who met with Harriman in 1924 to set up UBC – had several other jobs: in addition to being the managing director of voor Handel he was also the director of the August Thyssen bank in Berlin and a director of Fritz Thyssen’s Union Steel Works, the holding company that controlled Thyssen’s steel and coal mine empire in Germany.
Within a few weeks, Homer Jones, the chief of the APC investigation and research division sent a memo to the executive committee of APC recommending the US government vest UBC and its assets. Jones named the directors of the bank in the memo, including Prescott Bush’s name, and wrote: “Said stock is held by the above named individuals, however, solely as nominees for the Bank voor Handel, Rotterdam, Holland, which is owned by one or more of the Thyssen family, nationals of Germany and Hungary. The 4,000 shares hereinbefore set out are therefore beneficially owned and help for the interests of enemy nationals, and are vestible by the APC,” according to the memo from the National Archives seen by the Guardian.
Jones recommended that the assets be liquidated for the benefit of the government, but instead UBC was maintained intact and eventually returned to the American shareholders after the war. Some claim that Bush sold his share in UBC after the war for $1.5m – a huge amount of money at the time – but there is no documentary evidence to support this claim. No further action was ever taken nor was the investigation continued, despite the fact UBC was caught red-handed operating a American shell company for the Thyssen family eight months after America had entered the war and that this was the bank that had partly financed Hitler’s rise to power.
The most tantalising part of the story remains shrouded in mystery: the connection, if any, between Prescott Bush, Thyssen, Consolidated Silesian Steel Company (CSSC) and Auschwitz.
Thyssen’s partner in United Steel Works, which had coal mines and steel plants across the region, was Friedrich Flick, another steel magnate who also owned part of IG Farben, the powerful German chemical company.
Flick’s plants in Poland made heavy use of slave labour from the concentration camps in Poland. According to a New York Times article published in March 18 1934 Flick owned two-thirds of CSSC while “American interests” held the rest.
The US National Archive documents show that BBH’s involvement with CSSC was more than simply holding the shares in the mid-1930s. Bush’s friend and fellow “bonesman” Knight Woolley, another partner at BBH, wrote to Averill Harriman in January 1933 warning of problems with CSSC after the Poles started their drive to nationalise the plant. “The Consolidated Silesian Steel Company situation has become increasingly complicated, and I have accordingly brought in Sullivan and Cromwell, in order to be sure that our interests are protected,” wrote Knight. “After studying the situation Foster Dulles is insisting that their man in Berlin get into the picture and obtain the information which the directors here should have. You will recall that Foster is a director and he is particularly anxious to be certain that there is no liability attaching to the American directors.”
But the ownership of the CSSC between 1939 when the Germans invaded Poland and 1942 when the US government vested UBC and SAC is not clear.
“SAC held coal mines and definitely owned CSSC between 1934 and 1935, but when SAC was vested there was no trace of CSSC. All concrete evidence of its ownership disappears after 1935 and there are only a few traces in 1938 and 1939,” says Eva Schweitzer, the journalist and author whose book, America and the Holocaust, is published next month.
Silesia was quickly made part of the German Reich after the invasion, but while Polish factories were seized by the Nazis, those belonging to the still neutral Americans (and some other nationals) were treated more carefully as Hitler was still hoping to persuade the US to at least sit out the war as a neutral country. Schweitzer says American interests were dealt with on a case-by-case basis. The Nazis bought some out, but not others.
The two Holocaust survivors suing the US government and the Bush family for a total of $40bn in compensation claim both materially benefited from Auschwitz slave labour during the second world war.
Kurt Julius Goldstein, 87, and Peter Gingold, 85, began a class action in America in 2001, but the case was thrown out by Judge Rosemary Collier on the grounds that the government cannot be held liable under the principle of “state sovereignty”.
Jan Lissmann, one of the lawyers for the survivors, said: “President Bush withdrew President Bill Clinton’s signature from the treaty [that founded the court] not only to protect Americans, but also to protect himself and his family.”
Lissmann argues that genocide-related cases are covered by international law, which does hold governments accountable for their actions. He claims the ruling was invalid as no hearing took place.
In their claims, Mr Goldstein and Mr Gingold, honorary chairman of the League of Anti-fascists, suggest the Americans were aware of what was happening at Auschwitz and should have bombed the camp.
The lawyers also filed a motion in The Hague asking for an opinion on whether state sovereignty is a valid reason for refusing to hear their case. A ruling is expected within a month.
The petition to The Hague states: “From April 1944 on, the American Air Force could have destroyed the camp with air raids, as well as the railway bridges and railway lines from Hungary to Auschwitz. The murder of about 400,000 Hungarian Holocaust victims could have been prevented.”
The case is built around a January 22 1944 executive order signed by President Franklin Roosevelt calling on the government to take all measures to rescue the European Jews. The lawyers claim the order was ignored because of pressure brought by a group of big American companies, including BBH, where Prescott Bush was a director.
Lissmann said: “If we have a positive ruling from the court it will cause [president] Bush huge problems and make him personally liable to pay compensation.”
The US government and the Bush family deny all the claims against them.
In addition to Eva Schweitzer’s book, two other books are about to be published that raise the subject of Prescott Bush’s business history. The author of the second book, to be published next year, John Loftus, is a former US attorney who prosecuted Nazi war criminals in the 70s. Now living in St Petersburg, Florida and earning his living as a security commentator for Fox News and ABC radio, Loftus is working on a novel which uses some of the material he has uncovered on Bush. Loftus stressed that what Prescott Bush was involved in was just what many other American and British businessmen were doing at the time.
“You can’t blame Bush for what his grandfather did any more than you can blame Jack Kennedy for what his father did – bought Nazi stocks – but what is important is the cover-up, how it could have gone on so successfully for half a century, and does that have implications for us today?” he said.
“This was the mechanism by which Hitler was funded to come to power, this was the mechanism by which the Third Reich’s defence industry was re-armed, this was the mechanism by which Nazi profits were repatriated back to the American owners, this was the mechanism by which investigations into the financial laundering of the Third Reich were blunted,” said Loftus, who is vice-chairman of the Holocaust Museum in St Petersburg.
“The Union Banking Corporation was a holding company for the Nazis, for Fritz Thyssen,” said Loftus. “At various times, the Bush family has tried to spin it, saying they were owned by a Dutch bank and it wasn’t until the Nazis took over Holland that they realised that now the Nazis controlled the apparent company and that is why the Bush supporters claim when the war was over they got their money back. Both the American treasury investigations and the intelligence investigations in Europe completely bely that, it’s absolute horseshit. They always knew who the ultimate beneficiaries were.”
“There is no one left alive who could be prosecuted but they did get away with it,” said Loftus. “As a former federal prosecutor, I would make a case for Prescott Bush, his father-in-law (George Walker) and Averill Harriman [to be prosecuted] for giving aid and comfort to the enemy. They remained on the boards of these companies knowing that they were of financial benefit to the nation of Germany.”
Loftus said Prescott Bush must have been aware of what was happening in Germany at the time. “My take on him was that he was a not terribly successful in-law who did what Herbert Walker told him to. Walker and Harriman were the two evil geniuses, they didn’t care about the Nazis any more than they cared about their investments with the Bolsheviks.”
What is also at issue is how much money Bush made from his involvement. His supporters suggest that he had one token share. Loftus disputes this, citing sources in “the banking and intelligence communities” and suggesting that the Bush family, through George Herbert Walker and Prescott, got $1.5m out of the involvement. There is, however, no paper trail to this sum.
The third person going into print on the subject is John Buchanan, 54, a Miami-based magazine journalist who started examining the files while working on a screenplay. Last year, Buchanan published his findings in the venerable but small-circulation New Hampshire Gazette under the headline “Documents in National Archives Prove George Bush’s Grandfather Traded With the Nazis – Even After Pearl Harbor”. He expands on this in his book to be published next month – Fixing America: Breaking the Stranglehold of Corporate Rule, Big Media and the Religious Right.
In the article, Buchanan, who has worked mainly in the trade and music press with a spell as a muckraking reporter in Miami, claimed that “the essential facts have appeared on the internet and in relatively obscure books but were dismissed by the media and Bush family as undocumented diatribes”.
Buchanan suffers from hypermania, a form of manic depression, and when he found himself rebuffed in his initial efforts to interest the media, he responded with a series of threats against the journalists and media outlets that had spurned him. The threats, contained in e-mails, suggested that he would expose the journalists as “traitors to the truth”.
Unsurprisingly, he soon had difficulty getting his calls returned. Most seriously, he faced aggravated stalking charges in Miami, in connection with a man with whom he had fallen out over the best way to publicise his findings. The charges were dropped last month.
Buchanan said he regretted his behaviour had damaged his credibility but his main aim was to secure publicity for the story. Both Loftus and Schweitzer say Buchanan has come up with previously undisclosed documentation.
The Bush family have largely responded with no comment to any reference to Prescott Bush. Brown Brothers Harriman also declined to comment.
The Bush family recently approved a flattering biography of Prescott Bush entitled Duty, Honour, Country by Mickey Herskowitz. The publishers, Rutledge Hill Press, promised the book would “deal honestly with Prescott Bush’s alleged business relationships with Nazi industrialists and other accusations”.
In fact, the allegations are dealt with in less than two pages. The book refers to the Herald-Tribune story by saying that “a person of less established ethics would have panicked … Bush and his partners at Brown Brothers Harriman informed the government regulators that the account, opened in the late 1930s, was ‘an unpaid courtesy for a client’ … Prescott Bush acted quickly and openly on behalf of the firm, served well by a reputation that had never been compromised. He made available all records and all documents. Viewed six decades later in the era of serial corporate scandals and shattered careers, he received what can be viewed as the ultimate clean bill.”
The Prescott Bush story has been condemned by both conservatives and some liberals as having nothing to do with the current president. It has also been suggested that Prescott Bush had little to do with Averill Harriman and that the two men opposed each other politically.
However, documents from the Harriman papers include a flattering wartime profile of Harriman in the New York Journal American and next to it in the files is a letter to the financial editor of that paper from Prescott Bush congratulating the paper for running the profile. He added that Harriman’s “performance and his whole attitude has been a source of inspiration and pride to his partners and his friends”.
The Anti-Defamation League in the US is supportive of Prescott Bush and the Bush family. In a statement last year they said that “rumours about the alleged Nazi ‘ties’ of the late Prescott Bush … have circulated widely through the internet in recent years. These charges are untenable and politically motivated … Prescott Bush was neither a Nazi nor a Nazi sympathiser.”
However, one of the country’s oldest Jewish publications, the Jewish Advocate, has aired the controversy in detail.
More than 60 years after Prescott Bush came briefly under scrutiny at the time of a faraway war, his grandson is facing a different kind of scrutiny but one underpinned by the same perception that, for some people, war can be a profitable business.
The GOP’s Nazi Ties
Carla Binion writes, “Christopher Simpson says in ‘Blowback’ that after World War II, Nazi emigre were given CIA subsidies to build a far-right-wing power base in the US. These Nazis assumed prominent positions in the Republican Party’s ‘ethnic outreach committees’… The Nazi agenda did not die along with Adolf Hitler. It moved to America (or a part of it did) and joined the far right of the Republican Party… Russ Bellant (‘Old Nazis, the New Right, and the Republican Party’) shows that Laszlo Pasztor, a convicted Nazi war collaborator, built the Republican emigre network. Pasztor, who served as adviser to Republican Paul Weyrich, belonged to the Hungarian Arrow Cross, a group that helped liquidate Hungary’s Jews. Pasztor was founding chairman of the Republican Heritage Groups Council. Two months before the November 1988 presidential election, Washington Jewish Week, disclosed that a coalition for the Bush campaign included a number of outspoken Nazis and anti-Semites.”The Ghost of Adolph Hitler: Nazi Influence in America
John Stanton writes, “Here it is 2003 and the ghost of the notorious Nazi, Adolph Hitler, haunts America. He’s in the White House in Washington, DC, and soon the governor’s mansion in Sacramento, California. He roams the halls of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. His Nazi minions Arthur Rudolph and Werner Von Braun provided the know-how to put American astronauts on the moon and nuclear warheads into space… Hitler’s ghost occupies the hallowed ground of the US Central Intelligence Agency. General Reinhard Gehlen was Hitler’s top Soviet spy during WWII and was recruited by Allen Dulles, the first director of the CIA. According to Martin Lee, writing in the San Francisco Bay Guardian, Gehlen returned to West Germany in the summer of 1946 with a mandate to rebuild his espionage organization and resume spying on the East at the behest of American intelligence… Hitler’s ghost is present in the assembly lines of America’s automotive manufacturers.”A Cautionary Tale: How Many of Today’s Mainstream Media People Will Be Remembered like Leni Riefenstahl?
“Leni Riefenstahl, whose hypnotic depiction of Hitler’s Nuremberg rally, ‘Triumph of the Will,’ was renowned and despised as the best propaganda film ever made, has died,. Despite critical acclaim for her later photographs of the African Nuba people and of undersea flora and fauna, she spent more than half her life trying to live down the films she made for Hitler and for having admired the tyrant who devastated Europe and all but eliminated its Jews. Even as late as 2002, Riefenstahl was investigated for Holocaust denial after she said she did not know that Gypsies taken from concentration camps to be used as extras in one of her wartime films later died in the camps. War tribunals ultimately cleared her of any wrongdoing but suspicion of being a Nazi collaborator stuck.” Like Riefenstahl, many of today’s media personalities will be remembered as propagandists.Germany in 1933: The Easy Slide into Fascism
Bernard Weiner writes: “A goodly number of folks wonder if they’re living in America in 2003 or Germany in 1933. All this emphasis on nationalism, the militarization of society, identifying The Leader as the nation, a constant state of fear and anxiety heightened by the authorities, repressive laws that shred constitutional guarantees of due process, wars of aggression launched on weaker nations, the desire to assume global hegemony, the merging of corporate and governmental interests, vast mass-media propaganda campaigns…a timid opposition that barely contests the administration’s reckless adventurism abroad and police-state policies at home… Of course, America in 2003 and Germany seventy years earlier are not the same, and Bush certainly is not Adolf Hitler. But there are enough disquieting similarities in the two periods at least to see what we can learn — cautionary tales, as it were.”Texas TV Stations Pull CBS ‘Hitler’ TV Miniseries
“The CBS affiliate in Corpus Christi, Texas, has opted not to air a two-part miniseries dramatizing the young life of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. Dale Remy, general manager of KZTV Channel 10, said he was concerned that the film could give harmful ideas to white supremacists and disturbed young people. ‘The Nazi concept, if you will, is still very real, and I think anything we do to give that particular thinking a venue, a format, is a mistake,’ Remy said. ‘More people that are already on the fence on this and have issues might find something in this character to identify with… If Nazism had risen, fallen and gone away, I would not have the issue with it that I do. My issue is that Nazism is real in our society.'” Indeed it is. The CIA Bushes have long associated with Nazis. Prescott Bush was a banker for Nazi industrialists. And several old Nazis were exposed within the Bush ’88 campaign. (Enter “bush nazi” in Google).Bush, Insurance Industry Want Halt to Holocaust Survivors’ Law
AP reports: “The Bush administration and the insurance industry told the Supreme Court on Wednesday that a California law to help Holocaust survivors with decades-old insurance claims intrudes on U.S. foreign policy and should be struck down… The law was intended to address ‘a despicable practice by insurance companies, their refusal to provide basic policy information’ to Holocaust survivors and their heirs, said Frank Kaplan, a Santa Monica, Calif., lawyer who is representing state Insurance Commissioner John Garamendi in the case.” It’s not surprising that Bush would have no compassion for Holocaust survivors — his grandfather Prescott Bush’s companies’ assets were seized for financing Nazis. The CIA Bushes have long associated with Nazis. Several old Nazis were exposed in the Bush ’88 campaign. In 1993, Bush himself said that only Christians can go to heaven.Protest the Firing of ‘Hitler’ Producer Ed Gernon
Ron Wynn writes, “CBS demonstrated incredible corporate timidity April 6 when it chose to fire the executive producer of a controversial miniseries. According to both The Hollywood Reporter and the Web site Zap2it, the network canned Ed Gernon for telling TV Guide that a May launch date was perfect for the upcoming four-hour miniseries ‘Hitler: The Rise of Evil’ since the climate in Germany during Hitler’s rise to power mirrored the current prevailing attitude in the United States regarding the Iraq war. ‘It basically boils down to an entire nation gripped by fear, who ultimately chose to give up their civil rights and plunged the whole nation into war,’ Gernon said. ‘I can’t think of a better time to examine this history than now.’ ” Send your protest of Gernon’s firing to Janice.Lee@allianceatlantis.comHitler’s Declaration of War
Here is the complete translation of Hitler’s speech to the Reichstag on September 1, 1939, part of a teacher’s guide to the Holocaust.From the Reichstag Fire to the World Trade Center: Following Hitler’s Road to Fascism
Thom Hartmann writes, “February 27, 2003, was the 70th anniversary of Dutch terrorist Marinus van der Lubbe’s successful firebombing of the German Parliament (Reichstag) building, the terrorist act that catapulted Hitler to legitimacy and reshaped the German constitution. By the time of his successful and brief action to seize Austria, in which almost no German blood was shed, Hitler was the most beloved and popular leader in the history of his nation. Hailed around the world, he was later Time magazine’s ‘Man Of The Year.’ Most Americans remember his office for the security of the homeland… simply [as] the SS. We also remember that the Germans developed a new form of highly violent warfare they named ‘lightning war’ or blitzkrieg, which, while generating devastating civilian losses, also produced a highly desirable ‘shock and awe’ among the nation’s leadership according to the authors of the 1996 book ‘Shock And Awe’ published by the National Defense University Press.”A Long Bet, Not Made by Many
Milton Mayer writes: “What happened here was the gradual habituation of the people, little by little, to being governed by surprise; to receiving decisions deliberated in secret; to believing that the situation was so complicated that the government had to act on information which the people could not understand, or so dangerous that, even if he people could understand it, it could not be released because of national security. And their sense of identification…made it easier to widen this gap and reassured those who would otherwise have worried about it. ‘This separation of government from people, this widening of the gap, took place so gradually and so insensibly, each step disguised…as a temporary emergency measure or associated with true patriotic allegiance or with real social purposes. And all the crises and reforms (real reforms, too) so occupied the people that they did not see the slow motion underneath, of the whole process of government growing remoter and remoter.”Nazis in the CIA closet: The Origins of Fascism in the United States
Writes Christian DeWar: “The truth is that America hasn’t always been a good citizen of the world. Our country has intervened in many countries to overthrow democracies and subvert the will of the people. We have established and supported dictatorships and built armies to maintain totalitarian governments in office. Even a cursory examination of the United State’s involvement in such countries as Iran, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, Zaire, Angola, Nicaragua, Chile, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Panama, Guatemala, Grenada, Honduras and other countries will demonstrate that far from bringing democracy to the world, we have frequently destroyed it.”Like Bush, Hitler Once Had 90% ‘Approval’ – Thanks to Media Propaganda
On 8-20-1934, the NY Times reported that “89.9% of the German voters endorsed in yesterday’s plebiscite Chancellor Hitler’s assumption of greater power than has ever been possessed by any other ruler in modern times. The German people were asked to vote whether they approved the consolidation of the offices of President and Chancellor in a single Leader-Chancellor personified by Adolf Hitler… The endorsement gives Chancellor Hitler, who four years ago was not even a German citizen, dictatorial powers unequaled in any other country, and probably unequaled in history since the days of Genghis Khan. He has more power than Joseph Stalin in Russia, who has a party machine to reckon with; more power than Premier Mussolini of Italy who shares his prerogative with the titular ruler; more than any American President ever dreamed of” – until George W. Bush.On Memorial Day, We Also Remember Bush Family ‘Patriotism’ (cough!)
For Memorial Day, Bush visited Normandy. We ran this item last year when he presided over the ceremonies commemorating the invasion of Normandy. “Bush’s very presence at such events is a mockery compared to the sacrifices of real patriots. Whenever Bush makes such appearances — we will be here to remind our readers that grandfather Prescott Bush’s companies assets were seized in 1942 under the Trading with the Enemy Act for financing Nazis. Our troops were three weeks away from fighting the Nazis in North Africa. But the Bush-Nazi alliance has continued since then. In 1988 old Nazis were exposed within the Bush Sr. campaign team (enter ‘nazi’ in our .Compass search engine). Moreover, Bush Sr. armed and financed Saddam Hussein’s military right up to the Kuwait invasion, and left the American taxpayers holding $2 billion in defaulted Iraqi debt (enter ‘iraqgate’ in the .Compass). Dubya himself was AWOL from the National Guard for up to 2 years.”Another American Nazi Exposed
Mickey Z writes in Online Journal that Charles Lindbergh was possibly “the most visible pro-Nazi/anti-communist American isolationist in the years leading up to World War II… The Nazis conquered France in 1940 and Lindbergh lectured on, declaring that nothing could come of ‘shouting names and pointing the finger of blame across the ocean’ at Hitler and the Germans… Lindbergh identified three groups that were pushing the U.S. to enter the war, ‘the British, the Roosevelt Administration and the Jews’… In his diaries, Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels highly praised Lindbergh on several occasions. [After Pearl Harbor, FDR told his Secretary of the Treasury] ‘If I should die tomorrow, I want you to know this. I am absolutely convinced that Lindbergh is a Nazi.'” Wonder what FDR thought of Prescott Bush, a financier of Hitler’s Germany?Why Was Nazi Germany so Powerful? American Industrialists were Major Backers
In a January 2000 report in the Nation, Ken Silverstein reveals the close ties between Henry Ford and the Nazis: “Ford vehicles were crucial to the revolutionary Nazi military strategy of blitzkrieg. Of the 350,000 trucks used by the motorized German Army as of 1942, roughly one-third were Ford-made… While Ford Motor enthusiastically worked for the Reich, the company initially resisted calls from President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill to increase war production for the Allies… Ford’s energetic cooperation with the Third Reich did not prevent the company’s competitors from seeking to tarnish it by calling attention to its non-German ownership. Ford responded by appointing a majority-German board of directors for the Cologne plant, upon which it bestowed the politically correct Aryan name of Ford Werke. In March of 1941, Ford issued new stock in the Cologne plant and sold it exclusively to Germans, thereby reducing Dearborn’s share to 52 percent.”Bush Appoints Houston Republican Donor to Head Holocaust Museum Council
“Bush has appointed Fred S. Zeidman, a prominent Houston businessman and Republican activist, to head the parent organization of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Unlike the Holocaust Memorial Council’s two previous chairmen, Zeidman, 55, was born after the Holocaust generation and has no previous ties to the museum.” According to the Houston Chronicle (11/30/01): “When Mr. Bush was first campaigning for governor in 1993, he gave an interview about his belief in the redemptive powers of Jesus that upset some Jews [Bush said that he would have to be Christian to go to heaven]. It was Mr. Zeidman, chairman of the Anti-Defamation League’s southwest region and Texas state chairman of Israel Bonds, who reportedly served as peacemaker.” Zeidman is a Republican Team 100 Member. Since 1998, Zeidman and his wife Kay have given over $30,000 to the Republican Party, its candidates and PACS. Expect no mention of Prescott Bush’s financing of the Third Reich (enter ‘nazi’ in our search engine).The Crystal Cathedral’s Robert Schuller Is Allied with the Former Chairman of a Neo-Nazi Party
“The Crystal Cathedral’s Reverend Robert H. Schuller relies on a man with ties to American neo-Nazis in a campaign to build relations between people of different faiths. William W. Baker appeared three times as a guest lecturer at a Crystal Cathedral pastors’ conference on Jan. 29 and 30. Now head of Christians and Muslims for Peace (CAMP), Baker was chairman of the neo-Nazi Populist Party in 1984 and organized its national convention that year. The Populist Party was established and directed by Willis Carto, head of the now-defunct Liberty Lobby. The dean of American neo-Nazi politics, Carto also founded the Costa Mesa-based Institute for Historical Review, a group whose central purpose is Holocaust denial…Baker was indeed given an Ambassador for Peace award last year by the Interreligious and International Federation for World Peace. A check of the organization’s website reveals that the federation is run by the Reverend Sun Myung Moon.” Enter ‘Moon’ or ‘Nazi’ in our search engine for more background.In an Interview with Jim Lehrer on ‘Newshour,’ Rumsfeld Uses the Third Reich as an Example of How He Plans to Transform the U.S. Military!
“Jim Lehrer: ‘But if somebody were to look at this budget -forget the money for a while – just look at what it buys, does it buy anything that different than what we already have?’ Donald Rumsfeld: ‘Well, I think when you say ‘that different,’ it’s important to understand that you can – WHEN THE GERMANS TRANSFORMED THEIR ARMED FORCES INTO THE BLITZKRIEG, they transformed only about 5 or 10 percent of their force. Everything else was the same, but they transformed the way they used it, the connectivity between aircraft and forces on the ground, the concentration of it in a specific portion of the line, and it – one would not want to transform 100 percent of your forces. You only need to transform a portion.'” Let’s see – the Bush and Ashcroft have shredded our Constitutional Rights. They have set up the Office of Father…er…Homeland Security. Then look at the GOP/Bush dark history of Nazi alliances going back to Prescott Bush’s financing of Nazi industrialists (Enter ‘nazi’ in our .Compass search engine).Romany Gypsies Sue IBM for Its Role in Deaths of Over 600,000 Gypsies in Nazi Death Camps
The tentacle-like links between big corporations and bloody deeds around the globe, from the Nazi Holocaust to the devastating Indonesian coup of 1965 is mind-boggling and stomach-turning. But it’s never too late for justice. Now Romany groups have filed a Swiss lawsuit for what may be billions against IBM for its contribution to the efficient running of death camps. IBM’s Hollerith tabulating machinery, the mainframe computer of its era, was used by Nazis to track and identify victims. IBM continued to supply the machines to the Nazis even when their use was known. IBM’s big PR effort to improve its image: a paltry $3 million donation to a fund for compensating slave labor victims. Of course, IBM is not alone: Bush and family would never have had the resources to launch their political efforts without the millions they made from the Nazis.A Descendant Of Nazi Victims – Education Advisor Is Touched By Bush’s ‘Compassion’ At The Holocaust Museum – Seems Unaware Of the Bush Family’s Sordid Nazi Past
“Sometimes, [Education Advisor] Mr. Kress is the one touched unexpectedly. He recently toured the Holocaust Museum with Mr. Bush and others. At one point, he moved away to stand alone, grieving over the murder of his grandfather’s family under Hitler. Suddenly, Mr. Kress felt a hand on his chest. He opened his eyes to see Mr. Bush ‘with the most compassionate look on his face,’ Mr. Kress recalls. Mr. Kress’s eyes redden now, and fill with tears.” Shouldn’t Mr. Kress know that Bush’s grandfather Prescott made a fortune financing Nazis? Shouldn’t he know that Prescott and his father-in-law George Walker worked out deals with I.G. Farben, known for supplying gas to the camp ovens? Shouldn’t he know that the Bush alliance with old Nazis continued at least to the Bush ’88 campaign in which Dubya played a central role? (Enter ‘nazi’ in our “Compass” search engine to learn more, including a link to the recent Boston Globe article about the Bush-Nazi alliance.)CIA Releases 10,000 Pages About US Protection And Recruitment Of Nazis – Has The Bush Family’s Role Been Scrubbed?
“Because of [Klaus Barbie’s] association with Army intelligence, U.S. agents helped him escape to South America.” Like Barbie, who started with the OSS (the CIA’s predecessor), there are other, lesser-known Nazis that also worked for the OSS. The big question is — what is being left out from the document release? The Boston Globe just broke the news that Prescott Bush, Dubya’s grandfather, had his companies’ assets seized in 1942 under the Trading with the Enemy Act, for his financing of Nazis. (We reported this long before the Globe, enter “Nazi” in our “Compass” search engine). Like Allen Dulles and J. Peter Grace, did Prescott Bush use his Nazi contacts to help recruit Nazis into the CIA? The Bushes have likely been involved with CIA from the beginning. Prescott’s partner Robert Lovett drafted the blueprint for the CIA. The Bush network was linked to Klaus Barbie’s 1980 Bolivian “Cocaine Coup”. In 1988, investigator Russ Bellant exposed several old Nazis in the Bush campaign.Prescott Bush’s Grandson Backs Germany’s Agreement To Compensate Holocaust Victims
“German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said Thursday that he got assurances Bush backs an agreement [for the German government and industry] to compensate Nazi-era forced and slave laborers…in return for…’legal peace’ in the US courts.” Meanwhile, a private US suit against IBM for its part in the Holocaust has been dropped “to eliminate any obstacles German industry believes would hinder…payments to victims of the Holocaust,” according to the plaintiff’s attorney. A State Dept. spokesman said, “the United States strongly supports the opening of all archives, public and private, relating to the Holocaust era in order to…encourage greater understanding of the Holocaust.” Does that include the Bush family’s private archives – so that we can learn more about how Prescott Bush partnered with Nazi industrialists? Prescott had his assets seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act days before our troops fought the Germans. (Go to our “Compass” search engine and enter “Nazi”).Take a Tour of Anti-Nazi Posters
Big Business, united and in league with government, putting profits over people… this is the core of fascism. One of the best means to describe fascism and its sibling movement, the Nazi’s, is through the eyes of those who sought to warn the world.